Presentation on theme: "In the beginning… Why do we have laws? (discuss) Early Government."— Presentation transcript:
In the beginning… Why do we have laws? (discuss) Early Government
Tribal Usually a council They would make the rules of their tribe If you broke a rule, you were usually ostracized from the tribe.
The Ten Commandments Thought to be issued by God, through Moses
Hammurabi Ancient leader of Babylon Most laws were punishable by death/very harsh All laws and their punishments were based on where you were in the social order *Stop and do worksheet.
Justinian Leader of the Byzantine empire Wife Theodora convinced Justinian to add some rights for women in his law code. They included the right to own property The right to get a divorce
Enlightened Philosophers Baron de Montesquieu-French Wrote The Spirit of Laws-describes the perfect government. Gave us the idea for the separation of powers Creating the three branches of government Legislative, Executive and Judicial One branch can be checked by the other branch Checks and balances He concluded Rome fell because of loss of Personal liberties. “Power should be a check to Power”
Jean Jacques Rousseau French Natural rights of man-education, environment, laws Popular sovereignty- Government of the people-Direct Democracy “Social Contract”(give up freedoms for the common good) No nobility class Civilization corrupts peoples natural Goodness. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in Chains”
Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) French Freedom of Speech and Religion(end intolerance) Wrote satire targeting the government, catholic church and nobles Sent to the bastille twice and exiled to England for 2 years Raised doubts about Christianity “I may disapprove of what you said, But I will fight to the death for your Right to say it”
John Locke English-Two Treatises of Government 1690 Inalienable rights (The right to life, liberty and property) Believed in the Social Contract No absolute monarchies People learn from experience and Improve themselves. *The government should protect the Rights of the people. *Consent of the people
Beccaria Italian-On Crimes and Punishment No cruel and unusual punishment Creation of the Justice system Speedy trials No torture Punishment based on the Severity of the crime *Laws exist to preserve order and not to avenge crimes
Mary Wolstonecraft English- A Vindication of the Rights of Women” Woman must have rights as well: politically, and in education Education makes women virtuous and useful- better Mothers
Free Write In your own words… Which philosopher had the largest impact on modern government as it pertains to the US, and why? In your own words…Which philosopher is the most important to you, and why?
Magna Carta English Included: Trial by jury Due Process The right to have private property
English Bill of Rights Included: Trial by jury Due Process Private property No cruel punishment No excessive bail or fines Right to bear arms Right to petition
Virginia Bill of Rights US Included: No excessive bail or fines No unreasonable searches and seizures Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom of religion
The Bill of Rights US Included: Trail by jury Due process Private property No cruel and unusual punishment No excessive bails or fines Right to bear arms Right to petition No unreasonable searches and seizures Freedom of speech and press Freedom of religion
Free write What do you believe is the most important right in the Bill of Rights? Why?