Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Thinkers World History – Libertyville HS."— Presentation transcript:
Enlightenment Thinkers World History – Libertyville HS
“The Big Picture” Renaissance – changed the way man interpreted MAN Reformation – changed the way man interpreted GOD Age of Exploration – changed the way man interpreted the WORLD (& Europe’s place in it) Scientific Revolution – changed the way man interpreted the UNIVERSE WHAT’S NEXT?!?!
“The Big Picture” What’s the most common form of government in the 18 th C.? Enlightenment – examination of the relationship between the people and government Examination based in reason, thought – not emotion!
John Locke Wrote during the Glorious Revolution, in England (1688) Social Contract idea: People give up some rights, but retain others Inalienable rights –Life –Liberty –Property
John Locke Wrote Two Treatise on Government –Purpose of government is to protect inalienable rights –People have right to overthrow unjust government
Jean Jacques Rousseau Wrote The Social Contract –People are good –People need gov’t to keep them that way –People must have say in their gov’t Spoke a lot about Popular Sovereignty –Gov’t created by people –Gov’t subject to will of people –Power o gov’t = people
Thomas Hobbes Believed that man is evil and acts only in own self-interest A strong ruler was needed to keep people in check Believed in absolute monarchs Hobbes’ Social Contract: People give rights to gov’t to ensure their own safety Wrote The Leviathan –Gov’t should be very strong –“W/o gov’t, life would be nasty, brutish and short”
Voltaire Leading philosophe Salons –Rich people’s sitting rooms –Philosophes gathered to argue, debate ideas Voltaire wrote Candide –Supported freedom of speech, religion –Often made fun of intolerant nobles, churchmen “I disapprove of what you say, but will die defending your right to say it”
Montesquieu Wrote about gov’t structure –All gov’ts made up of executive, legislative, judicial powers –Separation of powers important: E, L & J should be divided to avoid dictatorship –Checks and balances: each branch of gov’t should balance other branches Avoid gov’t with all power in one pair of hands!
Beccaria Legal thinker Wrote about crime and punishment –Laws exist to preserve order –Criticized torture, unfair trials, cruel punishment –Against capital punishment –Punishment should be fair and fit the seriousness of the crime –All people had right to a fair and speedy trial