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Earth Boot Camp 3.7B: Investigate rapid changes in Earth’s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Boot Camp 3.7B: Investigate rapid changes in Earth’s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Boot Camp 3.7B: Investigate rapid changes in Earth’s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides.

2 1. In which of these ways can volcanoes help build up new land? A By adding heat to Earth’s surface B By adding gases to the atmosphere C By adding lava to Earth’s surface D By adding water vapor to the atmosphere Release Questions 2006—#21 (65%)

3 1. In which of these ways can volcanoes help build up new land? A By adding heat to Earth’s surface B By adding gases to the atmosphere C By adding lava to Earth’s surface D By adding water vapor to the atmosphere Release Questions 2006—#21 (65%)

4 2. The picture shows a kind of glacier that can be many meters thick. In this landscape, which of the following is most directly affected by this kind of glacier? F The average height of plants on the mountainside G The shape of clouds that form above the glacier H The average mass of trees near the lake J The shape of the valley between the mountains 2006—#30 (75%)

5 2. The picture shows a kind of glacier that can be many meters thick. In this landscape, which of the following is most directly affected by this kind of glacier? F The average height of plants on the mountainside G The shape of clouds that form above the glacier H The average mass of trees near the lake J The shape of the valley between the mountains 2006—#30 (75%)

6 3. Which of the following features is best modeled in the diagram above? A Island B Glacier C River D Volcano 2009—#31 (86%)

7 3. Which of the following features is best modeled in the diagram above? A Island B Glacier C River D Volcano 2009—#31 (86%)

8 4. An earthquake is – Acrust through which lava escapes Ba sudden movement in the Earth’s crust Ca kind of chemical weathering that changes the Earth Da huge wave that washes over the Earth

9 4. An earthquake is – Acrust through which lava escapes (volcano) Ba sudden movement in the Earth’s crust Ca kind of chemical weathering that changes the Earth Da huge wave that washes over the Earth (tsunami)

10 5. The picture to the right illustrates a cross-section of the layers of rock found underneath the topsoil of the earth. Which of the following MOST LIKELY caused Layer C to slant? AA volcano BAn earthquake CA flood DSubsidence A B C D

11 A B C D

12 6. Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers? AMost of Earth’s water is in the form of glaciers. BMelting glaciers supply water for many people. CGlacial movements can leave behind valleys. DGlaciers pick up boulders and sediment as they move.

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14 7. What is the scientific name for a mass of snow and ice in motion? AEarthquake BGlacier CLandslide DOutwash

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16 8. The Earth’s surface is not one solid piece of rock and soil, but is made up of large pieces called plates. These plates fit together like pieces of a puzzle and are constantly moving. Why can’t we feel the movement of these Earth plates? AThe plates move very quickly. BThe plates move very slowly. CThe plates are too small to feel. DThe plates are under the ground.

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18 9. Earthquakes can change the Earth’s surface in all of these ways EXCEPT— Acreating new mountains Bdepositing sand in deltas Cforming large cracks in rock Dby causing the Earth to shake

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20 10.The most common cause of earthquakes is – Aa giant tidal wave called a tsunami Bthe sinking of large mountains Ca movement in the Earth’s crust Dlarge hurricanes striking land

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22 11. The grinding action of glaciers causes— Athe creation of new landforms Bthe level of water in oceans to rise Cvolcanoes to pop up in cold places Dlakes to fill with icy cold water

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24 12. Some scientists have compared the action of glaciers on the Earth’s surface to using a nail file on fingernails. How is a glacier like a nail file? AThey are both made of metal. BThey both collect sand and soil. CThey both scratch and grind other materials. DThey both press down on various surfaces.

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26 13. What is one way that a glacier can change the Earth’s surface? AGlaciers help create new landforms. BGlaciers cause water to freeze into new landforms. CThe movement of glaciers causes volcanoes to erupt. DGlaciers melt and cause ocean tides to become higher.

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28 14. In what way are an earthquake and a glacier similar? AThey are both renewable natural resources. BThey both change the surface of the Earth. CThey both move very quickly. DThey both move very slowly.

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30 15. Glaciers form high in mountain valleys and in Polar regions where the snow falls but never melts. How do glaciers change the Earth’s surface? ABy melting and then flooding the valleys and Poles BBy grinding against valley walls to make them deeper and wider CBy causing earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes DPieces of ice break off and form icebergs in the ocean waters

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32 16. Water in the form of ice is responsible for which form of weathering listed below? AA glacier creating a valley BRivers depositing sediments CEarthquakes creating mountains DWind carving formations in rock

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34 17. Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers? AMost of the water on Earth is found in glaciers. BGlaciers form in very cold areas. CGlacial movements can create valleys. DGlaciers pick up and deposit sediments as they move.

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36 18. Look at the picture below. It shows high mountains. The layers are made of sedimentary rock. Before the mountains were formed, the sedimentary rocks were in flat layers. Use the picture below to answer question How were the mountains pictured above formed? AThe rock layers were compressed (squeezed) together. BThe rock layers were pulled apart by an earthquake. CThe rock layers were pushed up by a volcano. DThe rock layers went in opposite direction.

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38 19. Mountains occur mostly where— Athere is a lot of water erosion Bglaciers move boulders into piles Csinkholes cause surrounding land to collapse Dlayers of rock collide causing land to fold or rise

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40 20. A glacier moving down a mountain valley is pictured below. Glaciers are frozen, slow-moving rivers of ice that can move about three feet per day down mountain valleys. How does a glacier help create new soil? ABy carrying living plant material to the ocean BBy scraping small particles off large rocks CBy melting rocks along its path down the valley DBy freezing small particles of soil to form large rocks

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42 21. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. Which natural event MOST LIKELY caused the crack in the road? AWind BAn earthquake CLava flowing from a volcano DAn avalanche down a mountain

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44 22. The shale layers in the drawing were broken and separated by movement along the fault. What also MOST LIKELY occurred as these rock layers moved along the fault? AFormation of deep caves BErosion of lower layers CVolcanic eruption DEarthquake

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46 23. The plates in the Earth’s surface sometimes slip against each other causing the land to shake over a large area. This shaking can change the land and cause damage to buildings and other structures. This type of movement of the Earth’s plates also causes— Aan earthquake Ba volcanic eruption Cerosion Da landslide

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48 24. Which of the following would probably change the surface of the Earth in the shortest amount of time? AA massive hurricane BA volcanic eruption CWaves on a beach DA large tornado

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50 25. Sometimes heat and pressure build up in the Earth’s mantle, pushing hot magma up through a crack or a vent in the surface of the land. The rising magma can explode through the crack and create a/an— AVolcano BEarthquake CGlacier DValley

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52 26. A glacier might be called a “river of ice” because— AMuch of North America used to be covered by glaciers BGrooves formed by glaciers often fill with water and become lakes CIt flows across the land eroding and weathering everything in its path DIt leaves behind huge piles of broken rock

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54 27. Which of the following would be most directly affected by the flow of a glacier? AThe average height of plants on the mountainside BThe shape of the clouds that form above the glacier CThe type of trees found in a nearby lake DThe shape of the valley between the mountains

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56 28. What Happened? Mount St. Helens, Washington State Before May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens, Washington State After May 18, 1980

57 28. What Happened? Mount St. Helens, Washington State Before May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens, Washington State After May 18, 1980 The volcano erupted causing the lava to change the mountain

58 29. Some changes occur to Earth’s surface slowly while other changes occur rapidly. Which of the following changes the Earth’s surface rapidly? A. river B. wind C. weathering D. landslides Start of MS ?’s

59 29. Some changes occur to Earth’s surface slowly while other changes occur rapidly. Which of the following changes the Earth’s surface rapidly? A. river B. wind C. weathering D. landslides Start of MS ?’s

60 30. A new lava flow has created a thick layer of basalt. Which unit of measure would scientists use to measure the thickness of the rock layer, created as a result of volcanic activity? A. milliliters B. centimeters C. grams D. inches

61 30. A new lava flow has created a thick layer of basalt. Which unit of measure would scientists use to measure the thickness of the rock layer, created as a result of volcanic activity? A. milliliters B. centimeters C. grams D. inches (not metric)

62 31. Earth has four major layers as seen in the diagram below. The crust makes up a thin layer on the surface of our planet. This layer is not all in one piece, but is made up of many pieces – like a puzzle covering the surface of the Earth. These pieces, called plates, slowly move around, sliding and bumping into each other. Which of the following is responsible for rapid changes to Earth’s surface caused by shifting plates? A. rivers B. erosion C. earthquakes D. glaciers

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64 32. A teacher asks students to develop a question to research volcanoes. All the following questions would be valid to research EXCEPT – A. How do volcanoes change the Earth’s surface? B. What causes volcanoes to erupt? C. Do scientists drive across moving lava flows? D. Is a volcano constructive, destructive, or both?

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66 33. Landslides change the Earth’s surface rapidly when dirt, rocks, and pebbles slide down a slope together. Sometimes these landslides are small and other times they may change the entire side of a mountain. Which of the following is a cause of landslides? A. air pollution B. condensation C. hailstorms D. heavy rainfall

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68 34. In an activity, students rub two wood blocks together in opposite directions. Which natural occurrence does this activity represent? A. earthquake B. volcanic eruption C. landslide D. mountain formation

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70 35. The Hawaiian Islands were formed and continue to grow under the ocean surface. Which natural occurrences formed the Hawaiian Islands? A. earthquakes B. landslides C. underwater volcanoes D. tectonic plate collisions

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72 36. A very mountainous region in California has had an extreme amount of rain over the last 2 days. People living in this area should watch out for— A. hurricanes B. earthquakes C. volcanoes D. landslides

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74 37. A large wave that is formed out at sea by tectonic plate movement is called a tsunami. What is the cause of a tsunami? A. underwater volcano B. underwater hurricane C. underwater earthquake D. underwater landslide

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76 38. How does an area benefit from volcanic activity? A. farmland and crops are destroyed B. new land masses and islands are formed C. poisonous gases are produced D. roads are buried by flowing lava

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78 39. Which of these is least likely to cause a rapid change to Earth’s surface? A. volcano B. landslide C. earthquake D. deposition

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80 40. Which of the following most likely caused the change in the location below? A. volcano B. weathering C. earthquake D. thunderstorm

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82 41. Before investigating rapid changes in the Earth’s surface, students each developed a hypothesis about what rapid changes in Earth’s surface meant. Which student’s hypothesis was correct? A. Student 1 said rapid changes meant forms of participation B. Student 2 guessed rapid changes were high and low temperatures C. Student 3 guessed rapid changes were caused by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides D. Student 4 said rapid changes were the day and night cycle caused by Earth’s rotation

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84 42. Students learn through investigation that landslides travel at tremendous speeds. They research the effects of landslide speeds and report that some slides travel at speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Students decide to further investigate these reports by testing different amounts of water on three landform models all made of rock and pebbles. What is the variable in this experimental investigation? A. landslide speeds B. amount of water C. types of soil D. amount of pebbles

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86 43. The diagram below shows 4 layers of the Earth identified by numbers. Which layer experiences changes from earthquakes? A. layer 1 B. layer 2 C. layer 3 D. layer 4 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

87 43. The diagram below shows 4 layers of the Earth identified by numbers. Which layer experiences changes from earthquakes? A. layer 1 (crust) B. layer 2 C. layer 3 D. layer 4 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

88 44. Students build volcano models for a class science project. When vinegar, baking soda, dish detergent, and food coloring were mixed, a reaction caused the volcano to look like it was erupting. In the model, what part of a volcano did the mixture represent? A. vent B. lava C. magma chamber D. ash cloud

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90 45. When working with vinegar and baking soda, what procedure should students follow when testing the volcano model? A. stir the mixture rapidly B. wear safety goggles C. taste the mixture to identify the ingredients D. use a fire extinguisher to stop the eruption

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92 46. Which of the following best completes the table below? A. land explodes B. land melts C. new land forms D. crust fractures EventChange to Land Earthquake??? LandslideLand overlaps over land VolcanoNew land created

93 46. Which of the following best completes the table below? A. land explodes B. land melts C. new land forms D. crust fractures EventChange to Land Earthquake??? LandslideLand overlaps over land VolcanoNew land created

94 47. A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the waves caused by vibration and motion of the ground. The invention, a seismograph is most useful for measuring— A. tornadoes B. earthquakes C. rainfall D. mudslides

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