Presentation on theme: "REVIEW QUESTIONS. List the Earth’s layers starting from the inside and going outward Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust."— Presentation transcript:
List the Earth’s layers starting from the inside and going outward Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust
What type of model is our model of the Interior of the Earth CONCEPTUAL MODEL models developed in the mind The interior of the Earth…we CANNOT DIRECTLY OBSERVE IT
What did scientists study in order to gather evidence to build a model of the interior of the Earth? Seismic Waves (Earthquake Waves)
What process in the mantle drives the movement of the Earth’s crust? CONVECTION
Define the theory of plate tectonics. The Earth’s crust is broken into plates that move & interact with each other.
When two continental plates collide what happens? Explain. continent – continent Convergence Continents collide and fold up (crunch) to form mountains
Ocean plate is subducted below continent. Subduction: The movement when one plate (oceanic crust) dives below another plate Ocean – continent Convergence When an ocean plate converges with a continental plate what happens to the ocean plate?
What features form on the Earth’s surface when an ocean plate converges with a continental plate? A volcanic mountain chain forms on land
How are earthquakes, volcanoes and mountains related in terms of location? They are mostly formed along plate boundaries
West coast of the USA Transform Plate Boundary: California SAN ANDREAS FAULT Convergent Plate Boundary: Oregon & Washington CASCADE MOUNTAINS Where in the continental United States would you expect earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to occur? Why?
List and explain 2 pieces of evidence that we examined to support the theory of continental drift. Fossil evidence Modern mammals on continents Continents look like “puzzle pieces” Glacial grooves Suture Zones GPS
List 2 sudden geologic events (natural hazards) related to the direct movement of the geosphere. VOLCANO
Describe how a sudden geologic event can be destructive/hazardous to people. Earthquake Hazards Buildings and bridges collapse Roads crack Fires blaze due to ruptured gas lines Landslides occur because shaking cause rock to slide downhill Liquefaction Dams fail and cause flooding Volcano Hazards Lava streams burn all in their path Aircrafts endangered from ash in the atmosphere Roofs collapse, cities and surrounding landscape covered from ash fall & flow Volcanic pollution
Describe how a sudden geologic event can be beneficial to people? Rebuilds/uplifts the land Volcanic eruptions produce fertile new soil for agriculture
What forces uplift the Earth’s surface? Plate Tectonics Create volcanoes and mountains
What forces wear down the Earth’s surface? Weathering & Erosion
Name the 3 groups of rocks Igneous Forms from cooled magma or lava Sedimentary made of sediments that compacted over time Metamorphic Forms due to heat & pressure
Name and describe the 5 processes of the rock cycle -Cooling of magma or lava forms igneous rock -Weathering of a rock forms sediments -Lithification of sediments forms sedimentary rock -Heat & pressure on a rock creates metamorphic rock -Melting of a rock forms magma
Why would a 1000 year old statue that was moved from a desert to a park in NJ begin to crumble? Explain. Exposure to rain in NJ caused chemical weathering
Define chemical weathering Changes the chemical structure of the rock Water can: Dissolve minerals Cause rust to form
Define physical weathering. Breaks rock apart without changing the mineral make-up
List 3 examples of physical weathering. Plant roots grows in cracks breaks rock apart Ice wedging water seeps into cracks-freezes- expands-thaws Rock Abrasion rocks rub or collide due to wind or moving water
What changed the land surface in diagram? Describe forces that act to wear down the earth’s surface over time. Weathering and erosion over a long period of time will cause mountains to wear down to hills Water Wind Ice