2 Table of ContentsWord Bank pg. 1What I Know pg. 6
3 Word Bank11. weathering – natural process through which rocks or other materials are broken down into smaller pieces2. erosion – the process through which weathered rock or soil is moved from one place to another.3. glacier – a large mass of slowly flowing ice
4 Word Bank24. deposition - the process by which eroded materials are dropped off in another place.5. meanders – gentle curves that sometimes form in rivers with slow moving water6. sediment – particles of soil and rock that are carried along by water or wind
5 Word Bank37 floodplain – a place that is easily flooded when river water rises.
6 What I Know6The shape of the Earth can change over time by weathering (breaking down into smaller pieces) and eroding (moving broken pieces from one place to another).3 forms of erosion:1. by glacier2. by water3. by wind
7 What I Know Weathering: 6Weathering:Physical – caused by temperature changes, pushing, pulling or rubbing.Examples of Physical Weathering:1. when water freezes in cracks of rocks.2. trees grow up through cracks in rocks (on a cliff)3. rocks fall off the cliff and break other rocks on the way down.
8 What I Know Weathering: 6Weathering:Chemical Weathering occurs when chemicals break down rock.Examples of Chemical Weathering:1. statue changes color (acid rain)Acid rain wears away stone and metalsAcid rain forms when gases from factories enter the air and combine with rain drops.2. forming of a cave (chemicals in groundwater break up underground rock)
9 What I Know11Land can be eroded by gravity, glaciers, running water, waves, or wind.Erosion:By Gravity :Mudslide – the movement of a large amount of mud down a slope; when rain makes soil on a slope so heavy that it cannot stay in place on the slope.Landslide – the movement of a large amount of rocks and soil; may occur after an earthquake or volcanic eruption as these events loosen rocks and soil enough to be affected by gravity.Plants can help prevent erosion from gravity
10 What I Know Erosion: By Glaciers : 11 Glaciers form in cold areas where snow piles up and freezes.Water freezes in cracks in the rock, and as the glacier moves it carries away weathered pieces of rockRocks and flowing ice also wear away dirt and rock along the sides of the glacier.
11 What I Know Erosion and Deposition: 11Erosion and Deposition:Erosion and deposition work together to change the shape of Earth’s surface.As sediment is deposited, new land is formed.By running water:Water moves more rapidly on the outside of a meander; while moving slowly around the inside.Rivers with faster moving water tend to follow straight paths with deeper channels and steeper banks; slower moving waters have low banks and shallow channels with curvy paths.As water runs down a hill, it washes away soil and erodes rock.
12 What I Know Erosion and Deposition: By waves: 11 Waves can erode the shoreline and move sand and rocks further out to sea or down the beach to the side.When waves hit an area with 3 sides, the water erodes the sides. As this happens the rock forms an arch.When waves wash sand off the beaches, this sand may be deposited into the water rather than back on the beach.Eventually these sand deposits will build to make a sandbar.
13 What I Know Erosion and Deposition: By wind: 12 Wind can wear away rock and make them smooth.Wind can move sediment from one place to another (erosion)Sediment continues to erode with the wind until the wind slows down or stops. Then it is deposited.A dune forms when wind erodes sand and deposits it along the back of the beach.A dune forms in the direction that the wind usually blows.