Presentation on theme: "Diabetes in Your School - Encouraging Healthy Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1Diabetes in Your School - Encouraging Healthy Nutrition Donna Amundson, RN, CDEDiabetes Care CenterMedcenter One
2Food (mainly carbohydrate) is one of the major influences on blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
3In 1994, the Position Statement of the ADA stated: “Today, there is no one ‘diabetic’ or ‘ADA’ diet. Medical nutrition therapy for people with diabetes should be individualized, with consideration given to usual eating habits and other lifestyle changes.”
4The ideal diet for someone with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) is really just a healthy diet from which the entire family would benefit.
5Objectives of the Nutrition Plan To balance insulin and carbohydrate intake to help keep blood sugars as close to normal as possibleTo keep cholesterol at desired levelsTo improve overall health by maintaining the best possible nutritionTo help avoid long term complications
6To help attain normal growth and development for children and achieve appropriate weight for everyoneTo help prevent severe low blood sugar reactions
7The Six Major Nutrient Groups: Carbohydrate: One of the main energy nutrients. It supplies energy for the body and is further divided into starches (breads, noodles, pasta, rice, cereals and starchy vegetables such as corn, peas, potatoes and legumes) and sugars (sucrose or table sugar, fructose, lactose or milk sugar and syrups).
8Fat: Another of the energy nutrients. Total fat includes: Protein: One of the energy nutrients. It is found in meat, eggs, fish ,milk, yogurt and, in lesser amounts, in vegetables and other non-meat products, such as nuts, seeds and beans.Fat: Another of the energy nutrients. Total fat includes:Polyunsaturated fatMonounsaturated fatSaturated fatTrans-fatty acids
9Vitamins and Minerals: Important for growth, formation of blood cells, healthy skin, good vision and strong teeth and bones.Water: The most important nutrient for survival. It makes up much of the body’s blood, the body fluids and the body’s transport system. Serves as a coolant, shock absorber and waste remover. Our bodies are made up of about 2/3 water.
10Fiber: Dietary fiber is the part of the plants that is not digested and not absorbed into the body. It supplies bulk to the diet without adding calories and helps satisfy appetite and keep the digestive system running smoothly.
11The six main nutritional factors important for good glucose control are: Following some sort of meal planAvoiding extra snacksAvoiding over-treatment of low blood sugarsPromptly treating high blood sugarsAdjusting insulin dosages for mealsConsistent night snacks
12The basic recommendation for the use of sugars for people with diabetes has changed over the years. It has gone from avoidance to allowing sugar in the context of a healthy meal plan.
13Types of Meal Planning Approaches Constant Carbohydrate Meal PlanCarbohydrate Counting Meal PlanA third approach, the Exchange Meal Plan, is sometimes used for type 2 diabetes
14The purpose of all meal plans is to achieve better control of blood sugar levels. The method that works best for one person may not be the best for another.
15It’s important for the family to meet with a registered dietitian to develop a meal plan that meets the needs of the child.
16Constant Carbohydrate Meal Plan The amount of carbs (types can vary) is kept about the same for each meal and snack from day to day to match a relatively consistent dose if insulin.Consistency is the key!
17Carbohydrate Counting Meal Plan Involves counting the grams of carbohydrate that are to be eaten and then giving a matching dose of insulin.Allows for greater freedom and flexibility in food choices.Often used with intensified diabetes management with multiple daily insulin injections or insulin pump therapy.
18Examples of Carb Counts Medium apple…15 gmsMedium banana… 30 gms1 cup milk………15 gms1 cup chocolate milk…30 gms1 slice bread……15 gms⅓ cup pasta…… 15 gms½ cup corn………15 gmsHamburger bun…30 gms1 cup hotdish……30 gms1 hard shell taco…15 gms1/8 12” thin pizza…15 gmsSmall order fries…30 gmsOne 3” cookie……15 gmsFrosted cupcake…30 gms3 cups popcorn….. 15 gms½ cup ice cream….15 gms1 cup bean, noodle or vegetable soup…15 gms
19Sample breakfast… 1 ½ cups unsweetened cereal 30 gms 1 medium banana 1 cup milk15 gmsTotal Carbs: 75 gms
20Sample Lunch… Total Carbs: 75gms Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich 30 gms for 2 slices of bread15 gms for 1Tbsp jelly1 cup milk15 gms15 taco chipsTotal Carbs: 75gms
21Another example… 1 cup hamburger hotdish 30 gms 1 medium apple 15 gms 2 sugar cookies (3 inches across)1 cup sugar free koolaid0 gmsTotal Carbs: 75 gms
22One more… 1 hamburger with bun 30 gms 1 small order french fries 1 medium apple15 gms1 can diet pop0 gmsTotal Carbs: 75 gms
23Insulin to Carb RatioRefers to the amount of rapid acting insulin given for the amount of carbohydrate eaten at a meal or snackFor example, for a carb ratio of 1:15, 1 unit of rapid acting insulin would be given for each 15 grams of carb eaten.If the meal consisted of 45 grams, 3 units of insulin would be given.
24Every person is different in his or her need for rapid acting insulin, so carbohydrate ratios differ as well. The same person may even have different carb ratios for different times of the day.
25How are insulin adjustments made for food and blood sugar levels?
26Correction FactorWhen giving a dose of rapid acting insulin, thinking about the blood sugar level and the food to be eaten is always important.A correction (or sensitivity) factor can be used to determine how much extra insulin should be added to the insulin dose which will be given to cover the carb eaten.When giving a dose of rapid acting insulin, thinking about the blood sugar level and the food to be eaten is always important.To make dose decisions a bit easier, many families and care providers choose a correction (or sensitivity) factor to determine how much insulin should be added to the insulin dose which will be given to cover the carb eaten.
27The correction (or sensitivity) factor refers to the amount of insulin needed to correct a blood sugar levelThe goal is to return the blood sugar level into the desired range
28The most common correction dose is one unit of rapid acting insulin per 50mg/dl of blood sugar above 100mg/dl. So, if the child’s blood sugar was 180mg/dl, and 1 unit of rapid acting insulin was given, you could expect the blood sugar to drop to 130mg/dl.
29Every child is different, however, so the correction factor must be individualized by the child’s family and diabetes healthcare team working together.
30Roles and Responsibilities A key part of ensuring good diabetes care for children at school is a clear understanding of who will be responsible for each task.In general, the parents are responsible for providing all diabetes equipment and snacks.
31The parents should also help the school staff learn what they need to know about their child’s individual diabetes care.A health care plan should outline the child’s treatment, his target blood glucose range, insulin schedule, eating plan and usual blood glucose testing times.It should also include instructions on what to do in various situations, such as treatment of hypoglycemia.
32An adult and a back up adult should know how to test blood glucoseknow what to do if the blood glucose is out of rangeknow how to give (or supervise) an insulin injection if that’s part of the child’s heath care plan
33know how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia know when and how to give a glucagon injectionknow the child’s meal plan and work with the parents to coordinate it with the schedule of the other children in the class
34Diabetes well managed not only helps young people avoid long term complications, it also allows them to feel better and to be happier and more productive at school and at play.
35Resources Children’s Diabetes Foundation (800)695-2873 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International(212)American Diabetes Association(800)