4 Substance Element – substance with atoms that are all alike Examples areZinc, copper, carbonElements are found on the periodic table
5 SubstanceCompounds – substance formed by two or more elements in a fixed portionWater is a compound always made of one oxygen and two hydrogens
6 MixturesMixture – is a material made up of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical meansMixtures do not always have to have same proportions.
7 MixturesHeterogeneous Mixtures – are mixtures in which different materials can be distinguished easilyDoes not always mean it is easy to see just easy to separate by physical means
8 MixturesHomogeneous Mixtures – mixtures that contain two or more gaseous, liquid or solid substances blended evenly throughout the entire mixture.Solutions are another name for homogeneous mixtures
9 MixturesColloid – a type of mixture with particles that are larger then those in solutions but not heavy enough to settle out.Colloids can be determined because their particles are large enough to scatter light, this is called the Tyndall effect.
10 MixturesSuspension – heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle.Example pond water, some mud particles settle out and the water clears
11 Physical PropertiesPhysical properties – any characteristic of a material that you can observe without changing the identity of the substances that make up the material
12 Physical Properties Appearance – what does it look like Behavior – how does it act in different situationsIs it rough or smooth, bounce or roll
13 Physical ChangePhysical change is a change in size, shape, or state of matter. The substance does not change just the appearance and behaviorExample: freeze, boil, evaporate or condense
14 Physical ChangeDistillation is the process for separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vaporCan be used to get other materials out of water
15 Chemical PropertiesChemical property – is a characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical changeBurning something causes a chemical changeRusting is a chemical change
16 Chemical ChangeA chemical change is when a substance undergoes a change in which a new material is formed.When Iron oxidizes it forms rust and changes colorSubstances can be separated using chemical changesA chemical reaction can turn tarnished materials back into what they were originally
17 Law of Conservation of Mass The law of conservation of mass says that the mass of all substances that are present before a chemical change equals the mass of all substances that remain after the change.
18 Solids, Liquids and gases Draw picture of the particles of solids, liquids and gasesLabel the movement of particles of eachLabel how it is shaped
19 Kinetic TheoryKinetic Theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behaveThree assumptions1. All matter is composed of small particles2. These particles are in constant, random motion3. These particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their containers
20 Heating and CoolingMelting point –the point at which a solid begins to liquefyHeat of fusion – the amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase at its melting point
21 Heating and CoolingBoiling point – is the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquidHeat of vaporization – is the amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas.
22 Heating and CoolingDraw heating and cooling curves and label heat of fusion and heat of vaporization.
23 DiffusionDiffusion – is the spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformly distributed.The more dense a gas is the longer its diffusion rate
24 PlasmaPlasma – is matter consisting of positively and negatively charged particles. The number of positively charged particles equals the number of negatively charge particles so the overall charge is neutral.Stars, sun, lightning bolts, neon and fluorescent bulbs are all things consisting of plasmaScientist estimate that much of the matter in the universe is plasma.
25 Thermal ExpansionThermal expansion is an increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased.Solid thermal expansion – bridgeLiquid thermal expansion – liquid in a thermometerGas thermal expansion – hot air balloons
26 Water and thermal expansion Why does water not follow the rules for thermal expansion?
27 Unusual Substances Amorphous Solids Liquid Crystals Plastics and glass They melt over a range of temperatures not a specific melting pointLiquid CrystalsThese are used to make liquid crystal displays (LCD)
28 Properties of FluidsBuoyancy – is the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in itIf the weight of the object is equal to the buoyant force the object will float.
29 Archimedes PrincipleWhen an object is placed in water, the object will push the water out of the way as it begins to sink.It will stop when the weight of the water displaced equals the object’s weight
30 DensityIf an object is more dense then the fluid it is in it will sinkIf an object is less dense then the fluid it is in it will float
31 Pascal’s PrinciplePascal’s Principle says that pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluidExample – toothpaste tube
32 Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle says that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreasesPaper example
33 Viscosity – the resistance to flow by a fluid Syrup has a high viscosity, flows slowlyWater has a low viscosity, flows quickly
34 Behavior of Gases Pressure is force exerted per unit area Pressure is measured in a unit called pascal (Pa).Earth’s atmosphere has pressure exerting all around us.