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Molecular Motion Chapter 3. Matter and Energy Matter- anything that has mass and volume 4 states: solids, liquids, gases, plasma Energy- ability to do.

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Presentation on theme: "Molecular Motion Chapter 3. Matter and Energy Matter- anything that has mass and volume 4 states: solids, liquids, gases, plasma Energy- ability to do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Molecular Motion Chapter 3

2 Matter and Energy Matter- anything that has mass and volume 4 states: solids, liquids, gases, plasma Energy- ability to do work: Potential Kinetic

3 Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT): All matter is made of constantly moving particles (atoms, molecules) All particles have kinetic energy (KE)

4 Temperature and Kinetic Energy Temperature measure of average kinetic energy the more KE an object has, the higher its temperature Thermal energy= total KE; depends on: particle speed- faster particles have more KE number of particles- more particles have greater thermal energy

5 Energy and Solids Solids low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around definite shape, volume: *crystalline - repeating geometric pattern *amorphous - no pattern (e.g. glass, wax)

6 Energy and Liquids Liquids higher KE - particles can move, but are still close together indefinite shape, not volume flows-fluid

7 Energy and Gases Gases high KE – particles move freely indefinite shape and volume flows- fluid

8 Energy and Plasma Plasma very high KE- particles collide with enough energy to ionize (break into charged particles) lacks definite shape or volume can conduct electric current (unlike gases) most common state of matter

9 States of Matter MatterShapeVolume SolidsDefinite LiquidsNot definiteDefinite GasesNot definite

10 Changes of States Requiring Energy (Remember: heated particles move faster; cool particles move slower Melting point- solid to liquid Evaporation- liquid to gas Sublimation- solids to gas

11 Changes of State Releasing Energy Condensation- gas to liquid Freezing- liquid to solid Temperature is constant during all changes in state of matter (ex: If energy is added to ice, the temperature of ice will not rise until all the ice has melted)

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13 Conservation of Matter and Energy Neither mass nor energy can be created or destroyed during changes of state

14 Pressure and Fluids Fluids: (liquids, gases) exert pressure evenly in all directions Pressure: amount of force exerted on a given surface Pressure = force area Pascal (Pa): unit of pressure; 1N/m²

15 Buoyant Force Buoyant force: the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it (forces pushing up > forces pushing down) * bouyant force > weight object rises ** bouyant force < weight object sinks ***bouyant force = weight object floats

16 Buoyancy and Density Density: = mass ÷ volume; D= m v An object with D less than 1 g/cm³ will float

17 Archimedes Principle Archimedes principle: the bouyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the object

18 Pascal’s Principle Pascal’s Principle: a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid F₁ = F₂ A₁ A₂

19 Pascal’s Principle Hydraulic devices: use liquid to transmit pressure from one point to another ex: hydraulic breaks in cars, movement in starfish

20 Pascal’s Principle Practice A car weighing 1000 N sits on a 250 m 2 platform. What force is needed on the 10 m 2 plunger to keep the car from sinking? Given: Platform: F= 1000 A= 250m² Plunger: F= ? A= 10m² Remember: F₁ = F₂ A₁ A₂ Solve: 1000 N= F₂ 250m² 10m² (1000N)(10m²)=(250m²)F₂ F₂ = 40N

21 Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle: as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

22 Bernoulli’s Principle Viscosity: a fluid’s resistance to flow (usually, the stronger the attraction between particles in a liquid, the slower it flows)

23 Bernoulli’s Principle Venturi Effect: fluids flow faster through narrow spaces causing reduced pressure


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