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abnormal PSYCHOLOGY Fourth Canadian Edition

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1 abnormal PSYCHOLOGY Fourth Canadian Edition
Chapter 1 Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations, and Canada’s Mental Health System Prepared by: Tracy Vaillancourt, Ph.D. Modifed by: Réjeanne Dupuis, M.A.

2 Psychopathology Field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal… Behaviour Thoughts or cognition Feelings or emotions Source: page 2

3 What is abnormal behaviour?
Abnormality usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time such as: Statistical infrequency Violation of norms Personal distress Disability or dysfunction Unexpectedness

4 Statistical Infrequency
A behaviour that occurs rarely or infrequently A 14-year old boy wetting his bed and Mental retardation (IQ < 70) occur infrequently, as do most mental disorders Discussion point: Is statistical infrequency a good enough marker to determine if a behaviour is abnormal? Consider elite athletic ability Consider the flip side of mental retardation-- intellectual giftedness (IQ >130)

5 Violation of Norms A behaviour that defies or goes against social norms; it either threatens or makes anxious those observing it Anti-social behaviour of the psychopath violates social norms and is threatening to others But, “violation of norms” needs to be considered in reference to prevailing cultural norms What is the norm in one culture may be abnormal in another Discussion point: A prostitute violates social norms but does this mean that she/he would necessarily meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder?

6 Personal Distress A behaviour that creates personal suffering, distress or torment in the person This criterion fits many of the forms of abnormality such as depression but some disorders do not necessarily involve distress Psychopaths are often not distressed by their behaviour although these behaviour clearly impact others in a negative way Hunger and childbirth cause distress, but is this abnormal?

7 Disability or Dysfunction
A behaviour that causes impairment in some important area of life, e.g., work, personal relationships, recreational activities Examples of exceptions: Being short if you want to be a professional basketball player Transvestism is not necessarily a disability although it is currently diagnosed as a mental disorder if it distresses the person Discussion point: Why would transvestism without distress not be considered a disability? Most transvestites are married, lead conventional lives, and usually cross-dress in private.

8 Unexpectedness A surprising or out-of-proportion response to environmental stressors can be considered abnormal For example, we would expect a person to be sad if they lost a love one to cancer. We would not expect a person to laugh after being sexually assaulted. Other example: An anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation.

9 The study and treatment of mental disorders in Canada
There are approximately: 3,600 practicing psychiatrists 13,000 psychologists and psychological associates 11,000 nurses specialize in the mental health area Non-medical practitioners usually work within hospital or agency settings on a salary or in private practice Public health plan reimbursement of fees-for-service is limited to medical doctors Most of the primary mental health care is delivered by general practitioners

10 Psychiatrist, psychologist— what’s the difference?
Clinical psychologists typically have a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree, which entails four to seven years of graduate studies Psychiatrist hold an MD degree and have had postgraduate training, in which they receive supervision in the practice of diagnosing and psychotherapy Because psychiatrists have an MD degree, they can prescribe psychoactive drugs, whereas psychologists can not For more details: “FOCUS ON DISCOVERY 1.1: THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS”

11 History of Psychopathology
“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” George Santayana, The Life of Reason

12 Pre-scientific Inquiry
Mental disorders were believed to be caused by: Events beyond the control of humankind, such as eclipses, earthquakes, storms, fire, diseases were regarded as supernatural Behaviour that seemed outside individual control was subject to similar interpretation Thus, many early philosophers, theologians, and physicians believed that deviant behaviour reflected the displeasure of the gods or possession by demons

13 Early Demonology Demonology: The doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body Found in the records of the early Chinese, Egyptians, Babylonians, and Greeks Given that abnormal behaviour was caused by possession, treatment often involved exorcism Ranged from elaborate rites of prayer to flogging and starvation as a way of rendering the body uninhabitable to devils

14 Trepanning Involved the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument Treatment used by Stone Age or Neolithic cave dwellers Used to treat epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders attributed to demons Thought to be introduced into the Americas from Siberia Practice was most common in Peru and Bolivia, 3 British-Columbia Aboriginal specimens found

15 Hippocrates (ca. 460–377 B.C) Separated medicine from religion, magic, and superstition Rejected belief that the gods sent physical diseases and mental disturbances as punishment Insisted that illnesses had natural causes thus should be treated like other illnesses

16 Somatogenesis vs. Psychogenesis
Hippocrates is one of the earliest proponents of somatogenesis Somatogenesis (genesis = origin) Mental disorders are caused by aberrant functioning in the soma (i.e., physical body) and this disturbs thought and action Psychogenesis Mental disorders have their origin in psychological malfunctions

17 Hippocrates’ Humoral Physiology
Hippocrates’ treatments were different from exorcistic tortures Tranquility, proper nutrition, abstinence from sexual activity were prescribed for melancholia Mental health dependent on a delicate balance among four humours, or fluids, of the body Imbalances and results  blood = changeable temperament  black bile = melancholia  yellow bile = irritability and anxiousness  phlegm = sluggish and dullness

18 The Dark Ages and Demonology
Churches gained in influence, papacy was declared independent of the state Christian monasteries replaced physicians as healers and as authorities on mental disorder The monks cared for and nursed the sick By praying and touching them with relics or Concocting fantastic potions for them

19 Persecution of Witches
During the 13th and the following few centuries, major social unrest and recurrent famines and plagues People turned to demonology to explain disasters Led to an obsession with the devil – ‘witches’ blamed and persecuted 1484 Pope Innocent VIII exhorted European clergy to leave no stone unturned in the search for witches Sent 2 Dominican monks to northern Germany as inquisitors who later issued the manual entitled the Malleus Maleficarum Used to guide witch hunters Came to be seen by Catholics and Protestants as a textbook on witchcraft Over the next several centuries, hundreds of thousands of people accused, tortured, and murdered

20 Witchcraft and Mental Illness
Were so-called witches psychotic? Detailed examination of historical period indicates most were not mentally ill Delusion-like confessions were obtained during torture

21 Other info. that ‘witches’ not mentally ill
From 13th century on in England, hospitals took over churches’ responsibility to tend to the ill Laws allowed dangerously insane and incompetent to be confined to hospital  and people confined were not described as being possessed Early 13th century “lunacy” trials held in England Trials conducted to protect the mentally ill Judgment of insanity allowed Crown to become guardian of estate Defendant’s orientation, memory, intellect, daily life, and habits were at issue in the trial Strange behaviour were explained as physical illness / injury

22 Development of Asylums
Until the end of the 15th century, very few mental hospitals in Europe but England and Scotland had 220 leprosy hospitals Leprosy gradually disappeared from Europe and attention turned to the mentally ill Confinement began in earnest in the 15th-16th centuries Leprosariums were converted to asylums Asylums took disturbed people and beggars Had no specific regimen for their inmates but work Despite the desire to help ‘the mad,’ hospitals tailored for the confinement of the mentally ill also emerged

23 St. Mary of Bethlehem Founded in 1243 in London, devoted solely to the confinement of the mentally ill Conditions were deplorable (bedlam) Eventually became one of London’s great (paid) tourist attractions Viewing the violent patients considered entertainment Discussion Point: What might be the effects of such inhuman treatment on the sequela of mental illness?

24 Moral Treatment Philippe Pinel (1745–1826) considered primary figure in movement for humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums Believed patients should be treated with dignity Put in charge of a large asylum in Paris known as La Bicêtre Removed the chains of the people imprisoned Began to treat patients as sick rather than as beasts Light and airy rooms replaced dungeons Walks around the grounds were allowed Results? Some patients incarcerated for years were discharged

25 Dorothea Dix Moral treatment was abandoned in the latter part of the 19th century but Dorothea Dix’s (1802–77) efforts resurrected it Boston schoolteacher who taught a Sunday-school class at the local prison Shocked by deplorable conditions and interest spread to the conditions of patients in mental hospitals Campaigned vigorously and successfully to improve the lives of people with mental illness

26 Asylums in Canada Network of asylums eventually established in Canada

27 Asylums in Canada Alberta Insane Asylum, Ponoka 1911 British Columbia
Public Hospital for the Insane, New Westminster 1878 British Columbia Mental Hospital, Coquitlam 1913 Manitoba Selkirk Asylum, Selkirk 1886 Home for Incurables, Portage-la-Prairie 1890 Brandon Asylum, Brandon 1891 New Brunswick Provincial Hospital, Saint John 1835 Provincial Lunatic Asylum 1848 Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Hospital for Insane, Halifax 1857

28 Asylums in Canada Ontario Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Toronto 1850
Kingston Asylum (Rockwood), Kingston 1856 London Asylum, London 1859 Orillia Asylum for Idiots, Orillia 1861 Hamilton Asylum, Hamilton 1876 Mimico Branch Asylum, Mimico 1890 Hospital for Insane, Brockville 1894 Cobourg Asylum 1902 Penetanguishene Asylum, Penetanguishene 1904 Whitby Hospital, Whitby 1914 Prince Edward Island The Prince Edward Island Hospital for the Insane 1877

29 Asylums in Canada Quebec Quebec Lunatic Asylum, Beauport 1845
Provincial Lunatic Asylum, St. John’s 1861 L’Hospice St. Jean de Dieu, Longue Point 1856 L’Hospice St. Julien, St. Ferdinand d’Halifax 1873 L’Hospice Ste. Anne, Baie-St. Paul 1890 Protestant Hospital for the Insane, Verdun St. Benedict Joseph Asylum, near city of Montreal 1885 Saskatchewan The Saskatchewan Provincial Hospital, Battleford 1914 Newfoundland Asylum for the Insane, St. John’s 1855 Northwest Territory Taken to asylums of Alberta and Saskatchewan Yukon Taken to New Westminster by Royal Northwest Mounted Police 1877

30 Beginning of Contemporary Thought
In 19th century, return to the somatogenic views first espoused by Hippocrates Early system of classification established

31 Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) Created a classification system to establish the biological nature of mental illnesses Noticed clustering of symptoms (syndrome) which were presumed to have an underlying physical cause, In fact, mental illness is seen as distinct, with own genesis, symptoms, course, and outcome Proposed two major groups of severe mental diseases: Dementia praecox (early term for schizophrenia) Thought chemical imbalance as the cause of schizophrenia Manic-depressive psychosis (now called bipolar disorder) Thought an irregularity in metabolism as the cause of manic-depressive psychosis Importantly, Kraepelin’s early classification scheme became the basis for the present diagnostic categories

32 General Paresis and Syphilis
Mid-1800s progress was being made in terms of understanding senile and presenile psychoses and mental retardation from a more biological perspective Far more was then discovered about the nature and origin of syphilis General paresis characterized by steady physical and mental deterioration, delusions of grandeur and progressive paralysis from which there was no recovery Discovery provides a good example of the increasing use of empirical approaches used to understand mental illness

33 Louis Pasteur Germ theory of disease, established by Pasteur
Laid the groundwork for demonstrating the relation between syphilis and general paresis Also helped establish a causal link between infection, destruction of brain areas, and a form of psychopathology Light bulb moment: If one type of psychopathology had a biological cause, so could others Result: Somatogenesis gained credibility and became a dominant theory

34 Psychogenesis Re-visited
Somatogenic causes dominated field of abnormal psychology until 20th Century due in large part to discoveries about general paresis but, psychogenesis was still “in fashion” in countries like France and Austria

35 Current Attitudes Much progress has been made in terms of understanding the nature, origin, developmental course and treatment of psychological disorders Still, many Canadians are still suspicious of people with mental health issues These concerns are reinforced with negative stereotyping and stigmatization Unfortunate consequence is that many people with mental illness do not seek help Class discussion point: Have students help you debunk the myths concerning mental illness (see pages 20-21).

36 Mental Health Care in Canada
Canada has a universal health care system since 1970 Each province / territory is responsible for administrating health care Health-care re-organisation and funding cuts have led to the closing of long-term psychiatric mental hospitals and beds on psychiatric hospital wards Community services are expected to take over some of these services See Canadian Perspectives 1.2 for more details

37 Historical Perspective of Mental Health Care in Canada
The health care system in Canada has not always been stellar in its ethical treatment of patients under its care Examples are: Dr. Cameron’s brainwashing treatment in Montreal in the 1950s and 60s Psychosurgery (e.g., lobotomy) performed out of scientific curiosity, i.e., to see how it would change patients In either case, consent was not obtained from patients or families Lobotomies were banned in all psychiatric hospitals in early 1980s See Canadian Perspectives 1.3 for more details

38 The Romanow Report Building on Values: The Future of Health Care in Canada (2002) The Romanow Report made 47 recommendations Romanow called mental health care “the orphan child of medicare” and recommended to make it a priority Some of the recommendations were: Include some homecare services for case management and intervention services Develop a national drug agency Provide a emergency drug program to help those with severe mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) Establish a program to support informal caregivers (e.g., friends, families) who assist the mentally ill in critical times

39 The Kirby Report Out of the Shadows at Last: Transforming Mental Health, Mental Illness, and Addiction Services in Canada (The Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, 2006) 2 Key recommendations were made: The creation of the Canadian mental health commission Facilitate a national approach to mental health issues Promote reform of mental health policies and improvement of services Educate Canadians by increasing mental health literacy Reduce stima and discrimination of mentally ill individuals and families The creation of the 10-year Mental Health Transition Fund Provide affordable housing to the mentally ill Offer support to provinces / territories in order to increas services in the community

40 The Future of Psychology
The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was critical of the Romanow Report as it (1) did not include psychology’s vision and (2) embraced a ‘physical medicine vision’ or somatogenic perspective CPA argued that: A plethora of research on the improved effectiveness of pharmacotherapy when combined with psychological treatment Savings could range as high as 80% of currently dominant treatments, including medication The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations advocate for (1) the integration of mental health services into primary health care and (2) the collaboration of care tams as the way of the future

41 Copyright Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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