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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:



3 Stress and Coping How is health psychology a union between medicine and psychology? What is stress, how does it affect us, and how can we best cope with it?

4 Health Psychology Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

5 Stress People’s response to events that threaten or challenge them
Stressors Circumstances and events in life

6 Categorizing Stressors
Cataclysmic Events Occur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneously Personal Stressors Major life events Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Daily Hassles Minor irritations of life that we face again and again

7 Categorizing Stressors
Common Daily Hassles and Uplifts Figure 1 of Chapter 11

8 The High Cost of Stress Psychophysiological Disorders (psychosomatic disorders) Actual medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties

9 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model
Hans Selye Physiological response to stress follows the same set pattern regardless of the cause of stress Three phases: Alarm and mobilization Resistance Exhaustion

10 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model
Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome Figure 2 of Chapter 11

11 Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress
Major Consequences of Stress Figure 3 of Chapter 11

12 Coping with Stress Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Categories Emotion-focused coping Managing emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way one feels about or perceives a problem Problem-focused coping Attempting to modify the stressful problem or source of stress

13 Coping with Stress Learned Helplessness Social Support
Occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled Experience more physical symptoms and depression Social Support Knowledge that we are part of a mutual network of caring, interested others

14 Coping with Stress Effective Coping Strategies
Turn a threat into a challenge Make a threatening situation less threatening Change your goals Take physical action Biofeedback Exercise Prepare for stress before it happens Proactive coping

15 Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being
How do psychological factors affect health-related problems such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and smoking?

16 The A’s, B’s, and D’s of Coronary Heart Disease
Type A Behavior Pattern Cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven Type B Behavior Pattern Characterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive manner Type D Behavior Pattern D is for “distressed” Characterized by insecurity, anxiety, and a negative outlook At risk for repeated heart attacks

17 Psychological Aspects of Cancer
Emotional responses have a critical effect on its course Those with a fighting spirit are more likely to recover

18 Psychological Aspects of Cancer
Relationship Between Patient Attitude and Cancer Survival Figure 4 of Chapter 11

19 Smoking Why People Smoke Quitting Smoking Heredity Genetics
Environmental factors Quitting Smoking Nicotine replacement drugs Behavioral strategies

20 Promoting Health and Wellness
How do our interactions with physicians affect our health and compliance with medical treatment? How does a sense of well-being develop?

21 Following Medical Advice
Noncompliance Creative Nonadherence Adjusting a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on one’s own medical judgment and experience

22 Increasing Compliance with Advice
Provide clear instructions to patients regarding drug regimens Honesty about nature of medical problems and treatments Positively framed messages Change in behavior will lead to a gain Negatively framed messages Highlight what can be lost by not performing a behavior

23 Well-Being and Happiness
Subjective Well-Being People’s evaluations of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions Characteristics of happy people Have high self-esteem Have a firm sense of control Are optimistic Like to be around other people

24 Well-Being and Happiness
Does Money Buy Happiness? Research shows that winning the lottery brings an initial surge to one’s happiness level, but then it returns to its set point.

25 Well-Being and Happiness
Faces Scale Figure 7 of Chapter 11


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