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Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 1 PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 1 PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 1 PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

2 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 2 CHAPTER ELEVEN: CHAPTER ELEVEN: HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: STRESS, COPING, AND WELL-BEING

3 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 3 Stress and Coping How is health psychology a union between medicine and psychology? How is health psychology a union between medicine and psychology? What is stress, how does it affect us, and how can we best cope with it? What is stress, how does it affect us, and how can we best cope with it?

4 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 4 Health Psychology Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

5 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 5 Stress Peoples response to events that threaten or challenge them Peoples response to events that threaten or challenge them Stressors Stressors Circumstances and events in life Circumstances and events in life

6 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 6 Categorizing Stressors Cataclysmic Events Cataclysmic Events Occur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneously Occur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneously Personal Stressors Personal Stressors Major life events Major life events Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Daily Hassles Daily Hassles Minor irritations of life that we face again and again Minor irritations of life that we face again and again

7 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 7 Categorizing Stressors Common Daily Hassles and Uplifts Figure 1 of Chapter 11

8 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 8 The High Cost of Stress Psychophysiological Disorders (psychosomatic disorders) Psychophysiological Disorders (psychosomatic disorders) Actual medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties Actual medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties

9 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 9 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model Hans Selye Hans Selye Physiological response to stress follows the same set pattern regardless of the cause of stress Physiological response to stress follows the same set pattern regardless of the cause of stress Three phases: Three phases: Alarm and mobilization Alarm and mobilization Resistance Resistance Exhaustion Exhaustion

10 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 10 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome Figure 2 of Chapter 11

11 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 11 Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Major Consequences of Stress Figure 3 of Chapter 11

12 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 12 Coping with Stress Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Categories Categories Emotion-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Managing emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way one feels about or perceives a problem Managing emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way one feels about or perceives a problem Problem-focused coping Problem-focused coping Attempting to modify the stressful problem or source of stress Attempting to modify the stressful problem or source of stress

13 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 13 Coping with Stress Learned Helplessness Learned Helplessness Occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled Occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled Experience more physical symptoms and depression Experience more physical symptoms and depression Social Support Social Support Knowledge that we are part of a mutual network of caring, interested others Knowledge that we are part of a mutual network of caring, interested others

14 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 14 Coping with Stress Effective Coping Strategies Effective Coping Strategies Turn a threat into a challenge Turn a threat into a challenge Make a threatening situation less threatening Make a threatening situation less threatening Change your goals Change your goals Take physical action Take physical action Biofeedback Biofeedback Exercise Exercise Prepare for stress before it happens Prepare for stress before it happens Proactive coping Proactive coping

15 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 15 Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being How do psychological factors affect health-related problems such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and smoking? How do psychological factors affect health-related problems such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and smoking?

16 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 16 The As, Bs, and Ds of Coronary Heart Disease Type A Behavior Pattern Type A Behavior Pattern Cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven Cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven Type B Behavior Pattern Type B Behavior Pattern Characterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive manner Characterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive manner Type D Behavior Pattern Type D Behavior Pattern D is for distressed D is for distressed Characterized by insecurity, anxiety, and a negative outlook Characterized by insecurity, anxiety, and a negative outlook At risk for repeated heart attacks At risk for repeated heart attacks

17 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 17 Psychological Aspects of Cancer Emotional responses have a critical effect on its course Emotional responses have a critical effect on its course Those with a fighting spirit are more likely to recover Those with a fighting spirit are more likely to recover

18 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 18 Psychological Aspects of Cancer Relationship Between Patient Attitude and Cancer Survival Figure 4 of Chapter 11

19 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 19 Smoking Why People Smoke Why People Smoke Heredity Heredity Genetics Genetics Environmental factors Environmental factors Quitting Smoking Quitting Smoking Nicotine replacement drugs Nicotine replacement drugs Behavioral strategies Behavioral strategies

20 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 20 Promoting Health and Wellness How do our interactions with physicians affect our health and compliance with medical treatment? How do our interactions with physicians affect our health and compliance with medical treatment? How does a sense of well-being develop? How does a sense of well-being develop?

21 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 21 Following Medical Advice Noncompliance Noncompliance Creative Nonadherence Creative Nonadherence Adjusting a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on ones own medical judgment and experience Adjusting a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on ones own medical judgment and experience

22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 22 Increasing Compliance with Advice Provide clear instructions to patients regarding drug regimens Provide clear instructions to patients regarding drug regimens Honesty about nature of medical problems and treatments Honesty about nature of medical problems and treatments Positively framed messages Positively framed messages Change in behavior will lead to a gain Change in behavior will lead to a gain Negatively framed messages Negatively framed messages Highlight what can be lost by not performing a behavior Highlight what can be lost by not performing a behavior

23 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 23 Well-Being and Happiness Subjective Well-Being Subjective Well-Being Peoples evaluations of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions Peoples evaluations of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions Characteristics of happy people Characteristics of happy people Have high self-esteem Have high self-esteem Have a firm sense of control Have a firm sense of control Are optimistic Are optimistic Like to be around other people Like to be around other people

24 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 24 Well-Being and Happiness Does Money Buy Happiness? Does Money Buy Happiness? Research shows that winning the lottery brings an initial surge to ones happiness level, but then it returns to its set point. Research shows that winning the lottery brings an initial surge to ones happiness level, but then it returns to its set point.

25 Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011 25 Well-Being and Happiness Faces Scale Figure 7 of Chapter 11


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