Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PsychSmartINTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
2 HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: STRESS, COPING, AND WELL-BEING CHAPTER ELEVEN:HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: STRESS, COPING, AND WELL-BEING
3 Stress and CopingHow is health psychology a union between medicine and psychology?What is stress, how does it affect us, and how can we best cope with it?
4 Health PsychologyInvestigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problemsPsychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
5 Stress People’s response to events that threaten or challenge them StressorsCircumstances and events in life
6 Categorizing Stressors Cataclysmic EventsOccur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneouslyPersonal StressorsMajor life eventsPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Daily HasslesMinor irritations of life that we face again and again
7 Categorizing Stressors Common Daily Hassles and UpliftsFigure 1 of Chapter 11
8 The High Cost of StressPsychophysiological Disorders (psychosomatic disorders)Actual medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
9 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model Hans SelyePhysiological response to stress follows the same set pattern regardless of the cause of stressThree phases:Alarm and mobilizationResistanceExhaustion
10 The General Adaptation Syndrome Model Selye’s General Adaptation SyndromeFigure 2 of Chapter 11
11 Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Major Consequences of StressFigure 3 of Chapter 11
12 Coping with StressEfforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stressCategoriesEmotion-focused copingManaging emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way one feels about or perceives a problemProblem-focused copingAttempting to modify the stressful problem or source of stress
13 Coping with Stress Learned Helplessness Social Support Occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlledExperience more physical symptoms and depressionSocial SupportKnowledge that we are part of a mutual network of caring, interested others
14 Coping with Stress Effective Coping Strategies Turn a threat into a challengeMake a threatening situation less threateningChange your goalsTake physical actionBiofeedbackExercisePrepare for stress before it happensProactive coping
15 Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being How do psychological factors affect health-related problems such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and smoking?
16 The A’s, B’s, and D’s of Coronary Heart Disease Type A Behavior PatternCluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling drivenType B Behavior PatternCharacterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive mannerType D Behavior PatternD is for “distressed”Characterized by insecurity, anxiety, and a negative outlookAt risk for repeated heart attacks
17 Psychological Aspects of Cancer Emotional responses have a critical effect on its courseThose with a fighting spirit are more likely to recover
18 Psychological Aspects of Cancer Relationship Between Patient Attitude and Cancer SurvivalFigure 4 of Chapter 11
20 Promoting Health and Wellness How do our interactions with physicians affect our health and compliance with medical treatment?How does a sense of well-being develop?
21 Following Medical Advice NoncomplianceCreative NonadherenceAdjusting a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on one’s own medical judgment and experience
22 Increasing Compliance with Advice Provide clear instructions to patients regarding drug regimensHonesty about nature of medical problems and treatmentsPositively framed messagesChange in behavior will lead to a gainNegatively framed messagesHighlight what can be lost by not performing a behavior
23 Well-Being and Happiness Subjective Well-BeingPeople’s evaluations of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotionsCharacteristics of happy peopleHave high self-esteemHave a firm sense of controlAre optimisticLike to be around other people
24 Well-Being and Happiness Does Money Buy Happiness?Research shows that winning the lottery brings an initial surge to one’s happiness level, but then it returns to its set point.
25 Well-Being and Happiness Faces ScaleFigure 7 of Chapter 11