Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The History of Psychopathology A historical perspective on abnormal behavior.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The History of Psychopathology A historical perspective on abnormal behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Psychopathology A historical perspective on abnormal behavior

2 What is Psychopathology? The study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings. The study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings. Psycho means mind. Psycho means mind. Pathology means pathogen or organism causing disease. Pathology means pathogen or organism causing disease.

3 Factors that determine whether behavior is abnormal or not: 1.Statistical infrequency 1.Statistical infrequency 2.Violation of norms 2.Violation of norms 3.Personal Distress 3.Personal Distress 4.Dysfunction 4.Dysfunction Unexpectedness Unexpectedness

4 Statistical infrequency: Abnormal behavior is often infrequent. Abnormal behavior is often infrequent. mania & depression occur in 1% of the pop.

5 Problem: Not all unusual behavior is abnormal!! (E.g., superior athletic ability, geniuses) (E.g., superior athletic ability, geniuses)

6 Violation of norms: Abnormal behavior often violates the social norms of a given culture. Abnormal behavior often violates the social norms of a given culture. (E.g., experiencing hallucinations, talking to inanimate objects,)

7 Problem: The violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept. The violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept. Criminals and prostitutes violate social norms, but would not fall within the context of abnormal psychology. Criminals and prostitutes violate social norms, but would not fall within the context of abnormal psychology.

8 Personal Distress: Behavior may be abnormal if it creates great distress. Behavior may be abnormal if it creates great distress. (E.g., people with depression experience considerable distress.) (E.g., people with depression experience considerable distress.)

9 Problem: Not all distressed individuals are mentally ill & some mentally ill individuals do not show distress (psychopaths). Not all distressed individuals are mentally ill & some mentally ill individuals do not show distress (psychopaths).

10 Dysfunction: Does the behavior impair an individuals ability to function in life (work, personal relationships)? Does the behavior impair an individuals ability to function in life (work, personal relationships)? (E.g., substance-use disorders) (E.g., substance-use disorders)

11 Problem: Some individuals with a DSM diagnosis, live functional lives (e.g., transvestites). Some individuals with a DSM diagnosis, live functional lives (e.g., transvestites).

12 Unexpectedness: Distress & disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to stressors. Distress & disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to stressors. E.g., (anxiety disproportionate with the situation). E.g., (anxiety disproportionate with the situation).

13 Problems with classifying behavior as abnormal Several factors need to be examined. Societal norms may change which behaviors are deemed abnormal. E.g., Homosexuality was once classified as a mental disorder in the DSM (up till 1973). E.g., Homosexuality was once classified as a mental disorder in the DSM (up till 1973).

14 1. Clinical Psychologist -Ph.D. or Psy.D. -Ph.D. or Psy.D yrs graduate study -4-7 yrs graduate study -1-year internship in APA accredited hospital or mental health facility. -1-year internship in APA accredited hospital or mental health facility.

15 History of Psychopathology Mental illness was thought to be the result of supernatural forces (angry Gods, possession by demons). Mental illness was thought to be the result of supernatural forces (angry Gods, possession by demons). Scholars, theologians, and philosophers believed a troubled mind was the result of displeased Gods or possession. Scholars, theologians, and philosophers believed a troubled mind was the result of displeased Gods or possession.

16 Demonology: the Devil made me do it! Abnormal behavior (hallucinations, delusions, paranoia) resulted from demonic possession. Abnormal behavior (hallucinations, delusions, paranoia) resulted from demonic possession. Treatment: drive the evil spirits out of the body. Treatment: drive the evil spirits out of the body. -stone-age: trephination -stone-age: trephination -exorcism: prayers, brews, flogging, starvation, etc. -exorcism: prayers, brews, flogging, starvation, etc.

17 Mental illness: a biological problem. By 5 th century B.C., mental illness--thought to be result of biological problem in the brain. By 5 th century B.C., mental illness--thought to be result of biological problem in the brain. -Hippocrates- argued that deviant behavior was result of physical causes. -Hippocrates- argued that deviant behavior was result of physical causes. -The view that deviant behavior occurs because of disease in the body is called Somatogenesis. -The view that deviant behavior occurs because of disease in the body is called Somatogenesis.

18 Hippocrates (contd.) Thought cognitive functioning could be restored by balancing the four humors in body: blood, black bile, yellow bile, & phlegm).

19 The Dark Ages With decline of Roman & Greek civilizations/ rise of Church as dominant power in Europe, demonology makes a come-back!! With decline of Roman & Greek civilizations/ rise of Church as dominant power in Europe, demonology makes a come-back!! *Treatment- exorcisms *Treatment- exorcisms

20 Mental illness: witchcraft (1300s) Hallucinations & delusions--evidence of witchcraft. Hallucinations & delusions--evidence of witchcraft. Most accused were not mentally ill, but forced to confess crimes they didnt commit. Most accused were not mentally ill, but forced to confess crimes they didnt commit. Treatment: beatings/death by hanging or burning. Treatment: beatings/death by hanging or burning.

21 Mentally ill housed in asylums (1500s+) After crusades, mentally ill were confined to asylums. After crusades, mentally ill were confined to asylums. Asylums (originally leprosariums), were converted after crusades when leprosy was on a decline. Asylums (originally leprosariums), were converted after crusades when leprosy was on a decline. Most famous: St. Marys of Bethlehem in London (founded in 1243). Called Bedlam. Most famous: St. Marys of Bethlehem in London (founded in 1243). Called Bedlam. Deplorable conditions- little food, little patient care, blood letting practices, & spread of diseases. Deplorable conditions- little food, little patient care, blood letting practices, & spread of diseases.

22 Asylums became attraction. Bethlehem- became hot tourist spot, where people gawked at Londons mentally ill. Bethlehem- became hot tourist spot, where people gawked at Londons mentally ill. Treatment- patients were drained of blood & purposely frightened. Treatment- patients were drained of blood & purposely frightened.

23 Moral Treatment (1790s +) Philippe Pinel – humanitarian treatment of mentally ill in asylums. Philippe Pinel – humanitarian treatment of mentally ill in asylums. Patients formerly chained & shackled were released & free to roam the buildings. Patients formerly chained & shackled were released & free to roam the buildings. Treatment: cannabis, opium, alcohol.

24 Medical model (recent) Mental illness– may have biological, psychological, and/or social cause. Mental illness– may have biological, psychological, and/or social cause. Treatment: drugs, psychotherapy, ECT

25 Psychopathology & crime Currently, it is well known that some forms of psychopathology predispose individuals to perform criminal acts. Currently, it is well known that some forms of psychopathology predispose individuals to perform criminal acts. Some of the mental disorders linked with criminal behavior are: conduct disorder, Some of the mental disorders linked with criminal behavior are: conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy.

26


Download ppt "The History of Psychopathology A historical perspective on abnormal behavior."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google