Presentation on theme: "Am I mad? Classifying & Diagnosing mental disorders."— Presentation transcript:
Am I mad? Classifying & Diagnosing mental disorders.
What's the difference between general medicine and Psychiatry? Doctors look for signs of a disease (using tests such as x-rays or bloods) and the symptoms (pain, discomfort) ITS ALL ABOUT SYMPTOMS & SIGNS!! Psychiatrists look for the patients own description of the problem and use psychiatric test (counterpart to blood tests)& that of friends/family etc..
Is psychiatry value free? Think homosexuality.. the late Oscar Wilde was imprisoned for homosexuality in 1895…A shift in cultural beliefs would now not allow such absurdity. Hence the criteria used by psychiatry to judge abnormality must be seen in a moral context, not a medical one (Heather, 1976) Psychiatry is a ‘quasi-medical illusion’
So how did it all begin??? It began with the work of Kraepelin- He claimed certain groups of symptoms occur together sufficiently often for them to be called a disease or syndrome…an underlying physical cause. He regarded each mental illness as distinct form all others with it’s own origins, symptoms course and outcome.
How did it begin??? He classified two major groups Dementia praecox (Chemical imbalance) and manic depressive psychosis (faulty metabolism). This helped to establish possible organic causes and formed the basis of the DSM Diagnostic statistical Manual (APA est) & the ICD International Classification of Diseases (WHO).
THEREFORE……. The ICD 10 and DSM-IV TR are based largely upon the experiences and beliefs reported by patients because there is no other objective biological markers for psychotic or neurotic disorders (Frith & Cahill, 1995).
Kraepelin His work is still embedded in the - Mental Health Act (1983) The Act identifies 3 major categories Mental disturbance/disorder. Personality Disorders. Mental Impairment.
Is psychiatry value free? Thomas Szaz..a major mover & Shaker in the world of mental health suggests: We seek to state norms in psychological ethical and legal terms..yet we seek to remedy the situation using medical terms. ‘Mental illness thus exists or is real in exactly the same sense in which witches existed or were real….’ Szaz (1962)
The Holy Grail..???? Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM- IV) A system devised by the American Psychiatric Association used by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behaviour.
How does it work? Five axes of the DSM-IV DSM is designed to be primarily descriptive and devoid of suggestions as to the underlying causes of an individual’s behavior and problems.