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Biology 30 The Endocrine System. 2 Comparison of Nervous System and Endocrine System Long lasting Lasts a short while Slow acting Fast acting Hormones.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 30 The Endocrine System. 2 Comparison of Nervous System and Endocrine System Long lasting Lasts a short while Slow acting Fast acting Hormones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 30 The Endocrine System

2 2 Comparison of Nervous System and Endocrine System Long lasting Lasts a short while Slow acting Fast acting Hormones travel through blood to their target Direct cell to cell communication Produceshormones Produces neurotransmitters Endocrine System Nervous System

3 3 General Things to Know  Endocrine = Hormone System  Hormones are chemicals produced in minute amounts  All hormones in body together weigh less than 5 ounces.

4 4 General Things to Know  Control the slow processes in our bodies  Rate of growth  Metabolism  Development before birth  Pregnancy, birth process, lactation  Initiation of puberty & sexual maturity  Storing & breakdown of food  Maintaining water & mineral levels

5 5 General Things to Know  Hormones are chemical messengers  Produced in a gland  Travel through the blood stream  Act on a “target” cell.  Hormones are created in glands called ENDOCRINE glands (“ductless glands”)  Because the glands secrete into the blood stream, not into a body cavity (exocrine).

6 6 Types of Hormones 1. Local Hormones Not typical hormonesNot typical hormones Act immediately on area near secretionAct immediately on area near secretion Action is local and rapidAction is local and rapid Example = histaminesExample = histamines  Released by tissues when affected by a foreign substance… pollen…  Increases blood flow and fluid leaks into tissues  Inflammation, redness, swelling

7 7 Types of Hormones 2. Circulating Hormones TypicalTypical Produced by endocrine glandsProduced by endocrine glands Travel through bloodTravel through blood To target cellTo target cell Combine with receptor on or in the target cellCombine with receptor on or in the target cell  Receptor site is either on the membrane or in cytoplasm  Initiates a change in the target cell

8 8 Chemical Structure of Hormones We are concerned with 2 types 1. Protein or Peptide Hormones Made up of peptide chains or long proteinsMade up of peptide chains or long proteins Water soluble / lipid insolubleWater soluble / lipid insoluble Cannot cross phospholipid bilayerCannot cross phospholipid bilayer Includes hormones fromIncludes hormones from 1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary 3. Pancreas

9 9 2. Steroid Hormones Chemically related to cholesterolChemically related to cholesterol Water insoluble / lipid solubleWater insoluble / lipid soluble Can pass right through the cell membraneCan pass right through the cell membrane IncludesIncludes  Sex hormones  Thyroxin  Hormones from the adrenal cortex Chemical Structure of Hormones

10 Anatomy of the Endocrine System Its time for a sensational multi-media event!

11 Lipid Soluble Hormone

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13 Lipid Insoluble Hormone

14 14 Anatomy of the Endocrine System Assignment  Identify the following endocrine glands on a diagram of a human and identify the major hormones produced by that gland: Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary Pineal Gland ThyroidParathyroidThymusStomachDuodenum Adrenal Glands Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Gonads

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18 Let’s zoom in on the head.

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20 20 Anatomy of the Endocrine System  Hypothalamus  hormones produced here are secreted into the blood through the posterior pituitary.

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22 22 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Posterior Pituitary

23 23 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Posterior Pituitary

24 24 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Posterior Pituitary

25 25 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Posterior Pituitary

26 26 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Uterine contraction, milk secretion Uterine contraction, milk secretion Posterior Pituitary

27 27 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Uterine contraction, milk secretion Uterine contraction, milk secretion Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Posterior Pituitary

28 28 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Uterine contraction, milk secretion Uterine contraction, milk secretion Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) ADH Posterior Pituitary

29 29 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Uterine contraction, milk secretion Uterine contraction, milk secretion Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) ADHKidney Posterior Pituitary

30 30 Source = Hypothalamus Source = Hypothalamus SourceHormoneTargetEffect Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) Oxytocin Uterus, Mammary Uterine contraction, milk secretion Uterine contraction, milk secretion Hypothalamus (Posterior Pituitary) ADHKidney Water reabsorption Posterior Pituitary

31 31 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary

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33 33 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin)

34 34 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General

35 35 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General Stimulates body growth Stimulates body growth

36 36 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General Stimulates body growth Stimulates body growth Ant. Pituitary

37 37 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General Stimulates body growth Stimulates body growth Ant. Pituitary Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

38 38 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General Stimulates body growth Stimulates body growth Ant. Pituitary Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyroid

39 39 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Growth Hormone (somatotropin) General Stimulates body growth Stimulates body growth Ant. Pituitary Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyroid Stimulates release of thyroxine from thyroid

40 40 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary

41 41 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH

42 42 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex

43 43 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex Stimulates “Stress” Hormone Release

44 44 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex Stimulates “Stress” Hormone Release Cortisol Ant. Pituitary

45 45 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex Stimulates “Stress” Hormone Release Cortisol Ant. Pituitary Prolactin

46 46 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex Stimulates “Stress” Hormone Release Cortisol Ant. Pituitary ProlactinMammary

47 47 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Adreno- corticotropic Hormone ACTH Adrenal Cortex Stimulates “Stress” Hormone Release Cortisol Ant. Pituitary ProlactinMammary Milk production & Secretion

48 48 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary

49 49 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH

50 50 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes

51 51 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes Growth of ovarian follicle, Production of Sperm

52 52 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes Growth of ovarian follicle, Production of Sperm Ant. Pituitary

53 53 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes Growth of ovarian follicle, Production of Sperm Ant. Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone LH

54 54 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes Growth of ovarian follicle, Production of Sperm Ant. Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone LH Ovary & Testes

55 55 Source = Anterior Pituitary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ant. Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Ovary & Testes Growth of ovarian follicle, Production of Sperm Ant. Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone LH Ovary & Testes Stimulates ovulation, production of testosterone

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58 58 Source = Pineal Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pineal Gland

59 59 Source = Pineal Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pineal Gland Melatonin

60 60 Source = Pineal Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pineal Gland MelatoninGeneral

61 61 Source = Pineal Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pineal Gland MelatoninGeneralBiorhythms (sleep vs. wake) (summer vs. winter) Length of days

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63 63 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland

64 64 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland Thyroxin

65 65 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland ThyroxinGeneral

66 66 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland ThyroxinGeneral Stimulates metabolism, growth, development

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68 68 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland

69 69 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland Calcitonin

70 70 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone

71 71 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone Lowers calcium levels by inhibiting bone breakdown

72 72 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone Lowers calcium levels by inhibiting bone breakdown Parathyroid Gland

73 73 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone Lowers calcium levels by inhibiting bone breakdown Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone

74 74 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone Lowers calcium levels by inhibiting bone breakdown Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone Bone

75 75 Source = Thyroid Gland SourceHormoneTargetEffect Thyroid Gland CalcitoninBone Lowers calcium levels by inhibiting bone breakdown Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone Bone Raises calcium levels by stimulating bone breakdown

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78 78 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex

79 79 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex Aldosterone

80 80 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney

81 81 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney Reabsorbs sodium and water

82 82 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney Reabsorbs sodium and water Adrenal Cortex

83 83 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney Reabsorbs sodium and water Adrenal Cortex Cortisol

84 84 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney Reabsorbs sodium and water Adrenal Cortex CortisolGeneral

85 85 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Cortex AldosteroneKidney Reabsorbs sodium and water Adrenal Cortex CortisolGeneralStimulates Glucose Release Long term stress

86 86 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla

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88 88 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin)

89 89 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle

90 90 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle Stimulates Glucose release Short term stress

91 91 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle Stimulates Glucose release Short term stress Adrenal Medulla

92 92 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle Stimulates Glucose release Short term stress Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine (noradrenalin)

93 93 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle Stimulates Glucose release Short term stress Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine (noradrenalin) General Heart

94 94 Source = Adrenal Glands SourceHormoneTargetEffect Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine(Adrenalin) Liver & Muscle Stimulates Glucose release Short term stress Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine (noradrenalin) General Heart Constrict Blood Vessels Increase Heart Rate

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96 96 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans

97 97 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans Insulin

98 98 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral

99 99 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral Lowers blood glucose levels Stimulates uptake of glucose into cells

100 100 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral Lowers blood glucose levels Stimulates uptake of glucose into cells Pancreas Alpha Cells of Islets of Langerhans

101 101 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral Lowers blood glucose levels Stimulates uptake of glucose into cells Pancreas Alpha Cells of Islets of Langerhans Glucagon

102 102 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral Lowers blood glucose levels Stimulates uptake of glucose into cells Pancreas Alpha Cells of Islets of Langerhans Glucagon Liver & Fatty Tissue

103 103 Source = Pancreas SourceHormoneTargetEffect Pancreas Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans InsulinGeneral Lowers blood glucose levels Stimulates uptake of glucose into cells Pancreas Alpha Cells of Islets of Langerhans Glucagon Liver & Fatty Tissue Raises blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen back into glucose

104 104 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect Ovary

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106 106 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogen

107 107 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus

108 108 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus Develop & Maintain secondary female characteristics Growth of uterine lining

109 109 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus Develop & Maintain secondary female characteristics Growth of uterine lining Ovary

110 110 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus Develop & Maintain secondary female characteristics Growth of uterine lining OvaryProgesterone

111 111 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus Develop & Maintain secondary female characteristics Growth of uterine lining OvaryProgesteroneUterus

112 112 Source = Ovary SourceHormoneTargetEffect OvaryEstrogenGeneralUterus Develop & Maintain secondary female characteristics Growth of uterine lining OvaryProgesteroneUterus Promotes continued growth of uterine lining

113 113 Source = Testes SourceHormoneTargetEffect Testes

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115 115 Source = Testes SourceHormoneTargetEffect TestesTestosterone

116 116 Source = Testes SourceHormoneTargetEffect TestesTestosterone General & Reprod- uctive Structures

117 117 Source = Testes SourceHormoneTargetEffect TestesTestosterone General & Reprod- uctive Structures Develop & Maintain secondary male characteristics Promotes spermatogenesis

118 Now that you know what they are… Let’s find out how and when they are produced and how the system can be shut off when things are fine.

119 119 Hormones & Feedback  Hormone levels are regulated through a process called negative feedback  When the brain detects an inappropriate level of a certain hormone, it will do things to fix the problem.  When the problem is solved, the brain stops trying to fix it.  Let’s look at an example.

120 120 Hormones & Feedback  When insufficient levels of thyroxin in body… 1.the pituitary releases TSH 2.Thyroid then produces Thyroxin 3.Soon thyroxin levels are high enough for pituitary to stop releasing TSH. 4.As a result, thyroxin release stops.

121 Hormones & Feedback

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126 126 A Diploma Exam Diagram

127 127 Hormonal Control Assignment  Using your textbook and class notes, describe each the following disorders by 1.indicating the symptoms 2.identifying the hormones involved 3.identifying if this hormone is in hypersecretion or hyposecretion. 1. hypothyroidism 2. hyperthyroidism 3. goiter 4. diabetes mellitus 5. gigantism 6. dwarfism 7. acromegaly


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