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The Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology Endocrine System Endocrine organs secrete hormones directly into body fluids (blood) Hormones are chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology Endocrine System Endocrine organs secrete hormones directly into body fluids (blood) Hormones are chemical."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology

3 Endocrine System Endocrine organs secrete hormones directly into body fluids (blood) Hormones are chemical messengers that only affect target cells that have a special receptor on the cell surface

4 Hormones… Are of two types: steroid and nonsteroid, usually peptide (protein) Steroid hormones may enter the cell through the cell membrane, but nonsteroid hormones cannot

5 Nonsteroid hormones These hormones, usually proteins, cannot get through the cell membrane. They must attach to a receptor on the outside of the membrane They use a 2 nd messenger system to get the message into the cell, to achieve the desired response


7 Pass it on!

8 2 nd messenger system A chain reaction

9 Endocrine Glands


11 Control of Hormones Most often controlled by negative feedback This means a gland or system is sensitive to the concentration of the substance it secretes, or a product it controls

12 Control of Hormones If high levels of a hormone or product are detected, then the gland is inhibited (shut off) If low levels are detected, more must be needed, so the gland is not inhibited (allowed to turn on)

13 Control of Hormones What turns on and off each gland varies Some have many steps involved, like a chain reaction

14 Control of Hormones

15 Growth hormone is controlled by a releasing and an inhibiting hormone. Which one is secreted in greater concentration determines whether GH is released or not.

16 Control of Hormones

17 Hypothalamus controls Pituitary


19 Hormones of the Pituitary Master gland


21 Growth Hormone Stimulates cell growth and division Under-secretion can be dwarfism, with correct proportions and normal mental development Over-secretion can be gigantism

22 Twelve years old: 6’5” 6’1” normal male’s hand Twelve year old’s hand Gigantism

23 Hypopituitary Dwarfism

24 Posterior Pituitary Vasopressin is also called ADH: antidiruetic hormone

25 Thyroid Gland Secretes three hormones Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Calcitonin

26 Thyroid Hormones T3 and T4 control metabolism Undersecretion in childhood could cause cretinism; in adults called myxedema with sluggishness, obesity Oversecretion can be Grave’s disease Grave’s disease Cretinism

27 Goiter Enlarged thyroid gland Caused by lack of iodine Iodine is required to make T4, and if not present, the thyroid keeps working to the point of enlargement, yet cannot make T4

28 Thyroid Control TRH (TRF) from hypothalamus to pituitary TSH from pituitary to thyroid T3 and T4 (thyroxine) from thyroid Negative feedback

29 Parathyroid Parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) PTH increases blood calcium and decreases blood phosphate Parathyroid gland can sense level of calcium in the blood

30 Parathyroid Osteoblasts are cells that build bone Osteoclasts are cells that break down bone to release calcium If calcium is low in the blood, PTH stimulates osteoclasts If calcium is high in the blood, PTH inhibits osteoclasts Controlled by the parathyroid glands, sensing the amount of blood calcium

31 Parathyroid

32 Your body sacrifices bone tissue to maintain correct levels of calcium in the blood.

33 Thyroid helps with calcium The thyroid gland also helps with calcium regulation It secretes calcitonin, which decreases level of blood calcium by encouraging the kidney to excrete calcium and inhibiting osteoclasts PTH and calcitonin are opposites

34 Adrenal Hormones Adrenal glands on each kidney Inner part is called medulla Outer part is called cortex Each section produces different hormones


36 Adrenal Hormones Cortex produces cortisol (hydrocortisone) Stimulates carbohydrate metabolism Reduces inflammation Stimulates muscle growth

37 Cortisol from Adrenal cortex Undersecretion leads to Addison disease, can be fatal by disturbing electrolyte balance Oversecretion is Cushing syndrome, alters carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and electrolyte balance


39 Adrenal Hormones Cortex also produces aldosterone Acts on kidney to increase uptake of sodium Essential for survival because of its role in water and solute balance

40 Adrenal Hormones Medulla produces epinephrine, also called adrenaline “Fight or Flight” Increases heart rate, blood pressure, glucose level, and blood flow to heart and lungs

41 Pancreas Functions as both endocrine and exocrine gland Endocrine: hormones are insulin and glucagon Exocrine: digestive enzymes

42 Pancreas

43 Special clusters of cells called the Islets of Langerhans secrete hormones Alpha cells secrete glucagon Beta cells secrete insulin

44 Pancreas Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose Stimulated by low blood sugar

45 Pancreas Insulin stimulates the liver to form glycogen and promotes the absorption of glucose into cells Lowers blood sugar Stimulated by high blood sugar

46 Diabetes Mellitus Lack of insulin Cells are starving; cannot get glucose into the cell without insulin, thus weight loss is a symptom Kidneys try to get rid of excess sugar, increasing urine output and thirst

47 Diabetes Mellitus

48 High blood sugar damages blood vessels, leading to complications Complications include:coronary artery disease, retinal damage, kidney damage, and problems from poor circulation in the peripheral areas

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