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Chapter 14.  Traffic death rates are 3 times higher at night than the day  90 percent of a driver’s ability to react depends on vision, which is severely.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14.  Traffic death rates are 3 times higher at night than the day  90 percent of a driver’s ability to react depends on vision, which is severely."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14

2  Traffic death rates are 3 times higher at night than the day  90 percent of a driver’s ability to react depends on vision, which is severely limited at night  Harder to determine size, speed, color, and distance of objects ahead of you

3  Looking beyond your headlights Headlights can give you a false sense of security  At night, a person with 20/20 daylight vision can be reduced to 20/50  Narrow width of headlight beams can limit your view Always try to look beyond your headlights  Scan beyond the center of the lane  Reduce your speed and increase your space cushion  Look for flashes of light in the distance to signal the presence of another vehicle or traffic signals  Watch for reflections off of signs, roadway markings, and pedestrian clothing

4  Looking beyond your headlights (cont.) Avoid using lights inside your vehicle while driving at night  Reduces vision  Breaks concentration  Overdriving Your Headlights Traveling at speeds that prevent you from stopping within the distance lighted by your headlights  1. select a fixed object ahead of your vehicle the moment your headlights pick it up  2. count off 6 seconds  3. is the object in front of you or behind you?

5  Cont. Understand that while speed limits are posted, they may not be ideal for nighttime as they are for daytime Make sure headlights are aimed and working properly  Aiming too high or too low affects your vision and others as well  Replace lights if they get burned out  Illegal and dangerous

6  High and Low Beams When traveling on dark or poorly lit roads with little oncoming traffic, use your high beams Switch to low beams when oncoming traffic gets close, or you see taillights of vehicles in front of you  Blinded by the Light If you approach someone with their high beams on, reduce speed and look to the right side of the road If someone behind you has their high beams on, use the “night” setting of your rearview mirror Don’t wear sunglasses or have excessive tint

7  Dawn and Dusk Lights should be turned on from a ½ hour after sunset to a ½ hour before sunrise Or Any time your cannot see 1,000 feet in front of you If you are not sure, turn them on

8  Sunshine Glare Can affect your vision and contribute to driver fatigue Maintain extra space cushioning Look in each direction one extra time at an intersection Activate signals sooner

9  Unpaved or Gravel Roads Dirt and loose gravel can reduce traction  “Fishtailing” Stopping distance is increased, as well as following distance Use tire tracks used by other vehicles Possibly have headlights on when driving through dirt clouds

10  Deep Sand or Mud Unpaved roads may have stretches of deep sand Rain can also cause unpaved roads to be undrivable muddy messes  Even a small amount can make unpaved roads slippery Always approach muddy roads with caution  Avoid sudden stops and sharp turns  Maintain a fast enough speed so that the vehicle keeps its traction

11  What if you get stuck? First, try to back out using the tracks you just created If that doesn’t work…”Rock Out”!  Using a low gear, slowly start the car forward keeping the wheels straight. Gently step on the gas pedal. Do not spin the wheels  Go forward as far as you can. Press the brake and hold the car in place as you shift quickly into reverse.  Back up slowly as far as you can, step on brake and hold, shift back into low gear and go forward again.  Repeat rapidly, rocking the vehicle free If “Rocking Out” doesn’t work  Find some rough materials and stick them under the stuck tire(s) to give you better traction  Make sure no one is behind the vehicle, as these materials can be thrown

12  Potholes A hole in the roadway surface caused by weather, overuse, or a combination of both Hitting a pothole can do serious damage to the vehicle If you hit a large pothole, reduce speed, pull over, and check your vehicle  If tire pressure gets lost, go to a gas station or mechanic to get it checked  Dips Usually marked with warning signs and speed reduction signs Some are natural and others are intentionally put there to promote runoff

13  Shoulders and Drop-Offs Shoulders  Shoulders are a continuation of the pavement or other stable surface that extends beyond the road boundary lane  Designed to provide space for disabled vehicles, work crews, and evasive maneuvers in emergencies  Reduce hydroplaning and channel water away from the travel lanes  Increase distance between motorists and pedestrians or bicyclists Soft Shoulders  Shoulders that either slope downward or do not provide any traction  Found on old rural roads that have not been upgraded  Avoid driving on these unless necessary Drop-Offs  Areas where terrain literally drops off from the edge of the roadway without any shoulder  Most commonly found on mountain roads and on elevated roadways

14  Narrow Roads Very little room for error Sometimes there is not enough clearance for two cars  Communicate to other drivers  Bridges and Tunnels Both can be noisy, making it difficult to hear other vehicles Don’t look over the edge of a bridge They often have narrow lanes

15  Hills Consider the force of gravity on your vehicle  Steepness of the grade, speed you are traveling, and weight of your vehicle can affect how you drive When driving uphill, you are driving against gravity  You need more power to keep moving at the same speed  Once you find a comfortable speed, keep your foot there until the road starts to level off When driving uphill, you are driving with gravity  You need less power to keep moving at the same speed  Coast or brake if needed until the road levels out

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