2Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in drifting fog:Reduce speedMake sure headlights are on low beamTurn on windshield wipersTurn on defroster or air conditioner
3Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in heavy fog, smoke, rain or snow:Reduce speed to limits of visibilityDo not stop in roadwayBe alert for other vehicles stopped in roadwayTurn on emergency flashersTurn on windshield wipersLook for rest area or exit highway if possible
4Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in heavy fog, smoke, rain or snow:If impossible to leave highway:Stop beyond end of guardrailBack up outboard of guardrailTurn off all lightsWait for fog/snow/heavy rain to ease up
5Factors Affecting Visibility & Risk When Driving at Night Driver’s vision limited:Distance driver can see ahead reducedHeadlights provide little illumination of off-road areasLoss of color contrastImpaired distance judgmentGlare from oncoming/following vehiclesGlare recovery time (7 sec)
6Factors Affecting Visibility & Risk When Driving at Night Effects of headlight alignmentLow beamsIlluminate roadway 100 to 150 feetIlluminate area above roadway 300 to 500 feetMaximum safe speed 40 to 45 MPHHigh beamsIlluminate roadway 300 to 500 feetLight area above road 500 to 1800 feetMaximum safe speed 55 to 60 MPHVehicle load and affects light beam distance
8Sources of Glare Vehicle headlights/oncoming or following Dirty and/or pitted windshieldLight colored paper on dashSnow or ice on groundDriving into the sun/morning or eveningFlood lightsMisaligned head lightsFailure to dim lights in fog, rain or snowFlashing lights
9Controlling Glare Keep all windows and lights clean Keep all objects of reflective nature off the dashAdjust sun visorsAdjust mirrors: inside mirror to night driving setting or simply change angle slightlyWear sunglasses on sunny daysAdjust speed to accommodate reduced visibility conditionsAdjust seat to a higher position
10Reduced VisibilityReduced visibility from any source requires a reduction in speedThe Kentucky’s basic speed law requires you to operate at a speed reasonable and prudent for conditionsOperating at a speed at which you are unable to stop within the range of your visibility is illegal - and stupid!
11Driving when Traction is Poor The three factors leading to loss of vehicle directional control (skiddingCondition of the RoadwayCondition of the VehicleAction of the DriverDon't Be Caught Unaware!
12Dealing with Poor Traction Drivers need steady pulling, and moderate power when traction is poor.When wheels are stuck in mud, deep snow, or sand, power should be applied slowly.Keep the front wheels pointed straight ahead so the vehicle can move in a straight line. Try using a lower gear.If the vehicle is stuck, try to rock it out.If the vehicle wheels spin, stop rocking, and find a way to create traction under the drive wheels.
13Reduced TractionReduced traction from any source requires a reduction in speedThe Kentucky’s basic speed law requires you to operate at a speed reasonable and prudent for conditionsOperating at a speed at which you are unable to adequately maneuver within existing conditions is illegal - and stupid!
14Skid Control Look and Steer Where You Want to Go On Ice, shift to NeutralThreshold Brake (w/o ABS)
16Off Road Recovery Ease off accelerator and Stay Off the Brake Why ease off accelerator?Is it OK to brake if vehicle has ABS on all four wheels?Hold steering wheel firmlyGently turn steering wheel 1/4 turn toward roadWhen front tire gets on pavement gently steer back 1/4 turn
17BlowoutHold steering wheel firmly and steer to keep car going straightTake foot off gas pedalSignal and let the car slow without brakingSteer gradually to shoulderBrake gently to a stop off the road
18Reducing Consequences of a Collision Be PreparedSeat belts and airbagsHead restraintsLocked doorsAnti-lock brakes (ABS)Locate and secure loose articles
19Reducing Consequences of a Collision When a collision is inevitable and you have a choice, select an impact with the least consequences.
20Reducing Consequences of a Collision Choose off road pathSwerve right instead of leftHit something that gives - not solidSideswipe rather than head-onAdjust speed/steer to take hit behind rear wheels
21Steering Techniques Use 9 & 3 grip Remember even a small steering input uses more time and increases the distance traveled - thereby reducing available energySteering with ABS
22DRIVING IN HIGH WINDS1. Keep both hands on the wheel and be prepared to make steering corrections when you go from a protected area to an open area.2. Expect to find debris in the roadway.3. Stay away from high profile vehicles.4. Turn on your lights for greater visibility.5. Drive at a SLOW speed. SPEED increases the risk of being blown off course.6. Keep a safe distance from car in adjacent lanes as strong gusts could push a car outside its lane of travel.