Presentation on theme: "Adverse Driving Conditions and Emergencies. Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in drifting fog: –Reduce speed –Make sure headlights."— Presentation transcript:
Adverse Driving Conditions and Emergencies
Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in drifting fog: –Reduce speed –Make sure headlights are on low beam –Turn on windshield wipers –Turn on defroster or air conditioner
Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in heavy fog, smoke, rain or snow: –Reduce speed to limits of visibility –Do not stop in roadway –Be alert for other vehicles stopped in roadway –Turn on emergency flashers –Turn on windshield wipers –Look for rest area or exit highway if possible
Driving under conditions of limited visibility Driving in heavy fog, smoke, rain or snow: –If impossible to leave highway: Stop beyond end of guardrail Back up outboard of guardrail Turn off all lights Wait for fog/snow/heavy rain to ease up
Factors Affecting Visibility & Risk When Driving at Night Driver’s vision limited: –Distance driver can see ahead reduced –Headlights provide little illumination of off-road areas –Loss of color contrast –Impaired distance judgment –Glare from oncoming/following vehicles –Glare recovery time (7 sec)
Factors Affecting Visibility & Risk When Driving at Night Effects of headlight alignment –Low beams Illuminate roadway 100 to 150 feet Illuminate area above roadway 300 to 500 feet Maximum safe speed 40 to 45 MPH –High beams Illuminate roadway 300 to 500 feet Light area above road 500 to 1800 feet Maximum safe speed 55 to 60 MPH –Vehicle load and affects light beam distance
Driving at Night
Sources of Glare Vehicle headlights/oncoming or following Dirty and/or pitted windshield Light colored paper on dash Snow or ice on ground Driving into the sun/morning or evening Flood lights Misaligned head lights Failure to dim lights in fog, rain or snow Flashing lights
Controlling Glare Keep all windows and lights clean Keep all objects of reflective nature off the dash Adjust sun visors Adjust mirrors: inside mirror to night driving setting or simply change angle slightly Wear sunglasses on sunny days Adjust speed to accommodate reduced visibility conditions Adjust seat to a higher position
Reduced Visibility Reduced visibility from any source requires a reduction in speed The Kentucky’s basic speed law requires you to operate at a speed reasonable and prudent for conditions Operating at a speed at which you are unable to stop within the range of your visibility is illegal - and stupid!
Driving when Traction is Poor The three factors leading to loss of vehicle directional control (skidding –Condition of the Roadway –Condition of the Vehicle –Action of the Driver
Dealing with Poor Traction Drivers need steady pulling, and moderate power when traction is poor. When wheels are stuck in mud, deep snow, or sand, power should be applied slowly. Keep the front wheels pointed straight ahead so the vehicle can move in a straight line. Try using a lower gear. If the vehicle is stuck, try to rock it out. If the vehicle wheels spin, stop rocking, and find a way to create traction under the drive wheels.
Reduced Traction Reduced traction from any source requires a reduction in speed The Kentucky’s basic speed law requires you to operate at a speed reasonable and prudent for conditions Operating at a speed at which you are unable to adequately maneuver within existing conditions is illegal - and stupid!
Skid Control Look and Steer Where You Want to Go On Ice, shift to Neutral Threshold Brake (w/o ABS)
Off Road Recovery Ease off accelerator and Stay Off the Brake –Why ease off accelerator? –Is it OK to brake if vehicle has ABS on all four wheels? Hold steering wheel firmly Gently turn steering wheel 1/4 turn toward road When front tire gets on pavement gently steer back 1/4 turn
Blowout Hold steering wheel firmly and steer to keep car going straight Take foot off gas pedal Signal and let the car slow without braking Steer gradually to shoulder Brake gently to a stop off the road
Reducing Consequences of a Collision Seat belts and airbags Head restraints Locked doors Anti-lock brakes (ABS) Locate and secure loose articles Be Prepared
When a collision is inevitable and you have a choice, select an impact with the least consequences. Reducing Consequences of a Collision
Choose off road path Swerve right instead of left Hit something that gives - not solid Sideswipe rather than head-on Adjust speed/steer to take hit behind rear wheels
Steering Techniques Use 9 & 3 grip Remember even a small steering input uses more time and increases the distance traveled - thereby reducing available energy Steering with ABS
DRIVING IN HIGH WINDS 1. Keep both hands on the wheel and be prepared to make steering corrections when you go from a protected area to an open area. 2. Expect to find debris in the roadway. 3. Stay away from high profile vehicles. 4. Turn on your lights for greater visibility. 5. Drive at a SLOW speed. SPEED increases the risk of being blown off course. 6. Keep a safe distance from car in adjacent lanes as strong gusts could push a car outside its lane of travel.