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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 What is Normal? Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders Subjective Discomfort: Private feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; may lead to destructive or self-destructive behavior

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 What Is Normal? (cont.) Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place –Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes! Cultural Relativity: Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.1

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands Mental Disorder: Significant impairment in psychological functioning Those with mental illness lose the ability to control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings adequately Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness)

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Psychotic Disorder: Severe psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal, and a move away from reality Organic Mental Disorder: Mental or emotional problem caused by brain pathology (i.e., brain injuries or diseases) Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.)

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Mood Disorder: Disturbances in affect (emotions or moods), like depression or mania Anxiety Disorder: Disruptive feelings of fear, apprehension, anxiety, or behavior distortions that are anxiety-related Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.)

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Substance Related Disorders: Abuse or dependence on a mind or mood-altering drug, like alcohol or cocaine –Person cannot stop using the substance and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they do Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.)

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.) Somatoform Disorder: Physical symptoms that mimic disease or injury (blindness, anesthesia) for which there is no identifiable physical cause Dissociative Disorder: Temporary amnesia, multiple identity, or depersonalization (like being in a dream world, feeling like a robot, feeling like you are outside of your body) Personality Disorder: Deeply ingrained, unhealthy, maladaptive personality patterns

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.) Sexual and Gender Identity Disorder: Problems with sexual identity, deviant sexual behavior, or sexual adjustment Neurosis: Archaic; once used to refer to excessive anxiety, somatoform, dissociative disorders, and some kinds of depression

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions Family Factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal; poor child discipline; severe marital or relationship problems

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness (cont.) Psychological Factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Insanity Definition: A legal term; refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one’s actions

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 More on Insanity Those judged insane (by a court of law) are not held legally accountable for their actions Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital Some movements today are trying to abolish the insanity plea and defense; desire to make everyone accountable for their actions How accurate is the judgment of insanity?

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Expert Witness Person recognized by a court of law as being qualified to give expert testimony on a specific topic –May be psychologist, psychiatrist, and so on

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Personality Disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) Definition: A person who lacks a conscience (superego?); typically emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and manipulative toward others –Oftentimes called psychopaths or sociopaths

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 APD Characteristics Many are delinquents or criminals, but many are NOT crazed murderers displayed on television Create a good first impression and are often charming Cheat their way through life May be blind to signs of disgust in others

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 APD: Causes and Treatments Possible Causes: –Childhood history of emotional deprivation, neglect, and physical abuse –Tend to be thrill-seekers –Underarousal of the brain Very difficult to effectively treat; will likely lie, charm, and manipulate their way through therapy

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Anxiety-Based Disorders Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness Adjustment Disorders: When ongoing stressors within the range of normal experience cause emotional disturbance and push people beyond their ability to effectively cope

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 More on Anxiety-Based Disorders Usually suffer sleep disturbances, irritability, and depression Examples of Stresses: Grief reactions, lengthy physical illness, unemployment

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Anxiety-Based Disorders Concluded Anxiety Disorders: When distress seems greatly out of proportion to the situation at hand Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Duration of at least six months of chronic, unrealistic, or excessive anxiety; worries about work, relationships, ability, or impending disaster

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Panic Disorder (without Agoraphobia) A chronic state of anxiety with brief moments of sudden, intense, unexpected panic (panic attack) –Panic Attack: Feels like one is having a heart attack, going to die, or is going insane –Symptoms include vertigo, chest pain, choking, fear of losing control

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Panic Disorder (with Agoraphobia) Panic attacks and sudden anxiety still occur, but with agoraphobia

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Agoraphobia Characteristics Intense, irrational fear that a panic attack will occur in a public place or in an unfamiliar situation –Intense fear of leaving the house or entering unfamiliar situations –Can be very crippling –Literally means fear of open places or market (agora)

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Agoraphobia (without Panic Disorder) Fear that something extremely embarrassing will happen away from home or in an unfamiliar situation

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Specific Phobias Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations People with phobias realize that their fears are unreasonable and excessive, but they cannot control them

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Social Phobia Intense, irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, humiliated, or embarrassed by others (e.g., shyness, not eating or speaking in public) in social situations –Barbara Streisand, Woody Allen perhaps?

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Obsession Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent –Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort –Enter into consciousness against the person’s will –Most common: Being dirty, wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove), or violence (hit by a car)

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Compulsion Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat against his/her will –Help to control anxiety created by obsessions –Checkers and cleaners

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Stress Disorders Occur when stresses outside range of normal human experience cause major emotional disturbance –Symptoms: Reliving traumatic event repeatedly, avoiding stimuli associated with the event, and numbing of emotions Acute Stress Disorder: Psychological disturbance lasting up to one month following stresses from a traumatic event and that would produce anxiety in anyone who experienced them

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Lasts more than one month after the traumatic event has occurred; may last for years –Typically associated with combat and violent crimes (rape, assault, etc.) –The “War” in Iraq will likely lead to an increase of PTSD

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Amnesia: Inability to recall one’s name, address, or past Dissociative Fugue: Sudden travel away from home and confusion about personal identity

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personality traits; previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder –“Sybil” or “The Three Faces of Eve” are good examples –Often begins with horrific childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, molestation, etc.) –Therapy often makes use of hypnosis –Goal: Integrate and fuse identities into single, balanced personality

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Somatoform Disorders : Hypochondriasis Person is preoccupied with having a serious illness or disease –Interpret normal sensations and bodily signs as proof that they have a terrible disease –No organic cause can be found

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Somatoform Disorders: Somatization Disorder Person expresses anxieties through numerous physical complaints –Many doctors are consulted but no organic or physical causes are found

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Somatoform Disorders: Pain Disorder Pain that has no identifiable organic, physical cause –Appears to have psychological origin

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Somatoform Disorders: Conversion Disorder Severe emotional conflicts are “converted” into physical symptoms or a physical disability –Caused by anxiety or emotional distress but not by physical causes

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.4

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Psychodynamic Freud: Anxiety caused by conflicts among id, ego, and superego

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Some of Freud’s Concepts Regarding Anxiety Forbidden id impulses for sex or aggression are trying to break into consciousness and thus influence behavior; person fears doing something crazy or forbidden Superego creates guilt in response to these impulses Ego gets overwhelmed and uses defense mechanisms to cope

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Other Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders Humanistic: Unrealistic self-image conflicts with real self-image Existential: Anxiety reflects loss of meaning in one’s life Behavioristic: Anxiety symptoms and behaviors are learned, like everything else –Conditioned emotional responses that generalize to new situations

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 More Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders Avoidance Learning: When making a particular response delays or prevents the onset of a painful or unpleasant stimulus Anxiety Reduction Hypothesis: When reward of immediate relief from anxiety perpetuates self-defeating avoidance behaviors Cognitive: When distorted thinking causes people to magnify ordinary threats and failures, leading to anxiety and distress

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Psychosis and Hallucinations Psychosis: Loss of contact with shared views of reality

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Delusions False beliefs that individuals insist are true, regardless of overwhelming evidence against them

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Hallucinations Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world –Most common psychotic hallucination is hearing voices –Note that olfactory hallucinations sometimes occur with seizure disorder (epilepsy)

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Some More Psychotic Symptoms Flat Affect: Lack of emotional responsiveness; face is frozen in blank expression Disturbed Verbal Communication: Garbled and chaotic speech; word salad Personality Disintegration: Uncoordinated thoughts, actions, and emotions

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Other Psychotic Disorders Organic Psychosis: Psychosis caused by brain injury or disease –Dementia: Most common organic psychosis; serious mental impairment in old age caused by brain deterioration –Archaically known as senility –Common Causes: Circulatory problems, repeated strokes, shrinkage and atrophy of the brain

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Alzheimer’s Disease Symptoms include impaired memory, confusion, and progressive loss of mental abilities –Ronald Reagan was perhaps the most famous Alzheimer’s victim

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Delusional Disorders Marked by presence of deeply held false beliefs (delusions) –May involve delusions of grandeur, persecution, jealousy, eroticism, or somatic –Experiences could really occur! Paranoid Psychosis: Most common delusional disorder –Centers on delusions of persecution

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Schizophrenia: The Most Severe Mental Illness Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, apathy, thinking abnormalities, and “split” between thoughts and emotions –Does NOT refer to having split or multiple personalities

53 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Schizophrenia: Distortion of Reality

54 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 The Four Subtypes of Schizophrenia

55 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Disorganized Type Incoherence, grossly disorganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and flat or inappropriate emotions

56 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Schizophrenia: Common Symptoms

57 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Catatonic Type Marked by stupor, rigidity, unresponsiveness, posturing, mutism, and sometimes agitated, purposeless behavior

58 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Paranoid Type Preoccupation with delusions; also involves auditory hallucinations that are related to a single theme, especially grandeur or persecution

59 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Undifferentiated Type Any type of schizophrenia that does not have paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized features or symptoms

60 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Causes of Schizophrenia Psychological Trauma: Psychological injury or shock, often caused by violence, abuse, or neglect Disturbed Family Environment: Stressful or unhealthy family relationships, communication patterns, and emotional atmosphere Deviant Communication Patterns: Cause guilt, anxiety, anger, confusion, and turmoil Stress-Vulnerability Hypothesis: Combination of environmental stress and inherited susceptibility cause psychoses

61 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Biochemical Causes of Schizophrenia Biochemical Abnormality: Disturbance in brain’s chemical systems or in the brain’s neurotransmitters Dopamine: Neurotransmitter involved with emotions and muscle movement –Works in limbic system Dopamine overactivity in brain may be related to schizophrenia

62 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.7

63 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.8

64 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.11

65 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Schizophrenic Brain Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Computer enhanced X-ray of brain or body

66 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan Computer enhanced three-dimensional image of brain or body; based on magnetic field –MRIs show schizophrenic brains as having enlarged ventricles

67 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan Computer-generated color image of brain activity; radioactive sugar solution is injected into a vein, eventually reaching the brain –Activity is abnormally low in frontal lobes of schizophrenics

68 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Table 13.6

69 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Mood Disorders Major disturbances in emotion or mood, such as depression or mania –Depressive Disorders: Sadness or despondency are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable –Bipolar Disorders: Involve both depression, and mania or hypomania

70 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Bipolar Disorder: Delusional Thinking

71 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Milder Mood Disorders Dysthymic Disorder: Moderate depression that lasts for at least two years Cyclothymic Disorder: Moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years

72 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Major Mood Disorders Lasting extremes of mood or emotion and sometimes with psychotic features (hallucinations, delusions) Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder where the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression; one of the more serious mood disorders

73 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Endogenous Depression Depression that seems to be produced from inside the body (perhaps due to chemical imbalances) and NOT from reaction to life events

74 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Depression that only occurs during fall and winter –May be related to reduced exposure to sunlight –Phototherapy: Extended exposure to bright light to treat SAD

75 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Bipolar Disorders Bipolar I Disorder: Extreme mania and deep depression; one type of manic-depressive illness –Mania: Excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior Bipolar II Disorder: Person is mainly sad but has one or more hypomanic episodes (mild mania)

76 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Bipolar Disorder: Expression of Mood

77 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Maternity Blues Mild depression that lasts for one to two days after childbirth –Marked by crying, fitful sleep, tension, anger, and irritability –Brief and not too severe

78 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Postpartum Depression Moderately severe depression that begins within three months following childbirth –Marked by mood swings, despondency, feelings of inadequacy, and an inability to cope with the new baby –May last from two months to one year –Part of the problem may be hormonal

79 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.12

80 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Suicide: Major Risk Factors Drug or alcohol abuse Prior suicide attempt Depression or other mood disorder Availability of a firearm Severe anxiety or panic attacks Family history of suicidal behavior Shame, humiliation, failure or rejection

81 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.14

82 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Figure 13.15

83 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 13 Common Characteristics of Suicidal Thoughts and Feelings (Shneidman) Escape Unbearable Psychological Pain: Emotional pain that the person wishes to escape Frustrated Psychological Needs: Such as searching for love, achievement, or security Constriction of Options: Feeling helpless and hopeless and deciding that death is the only option left


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