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Sexuality Chapter 13: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Sexuality Chapter 13: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexuality Chapter 13: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Sexual Motivation and Behavior Sexuality and Adjustment Sexuality and Harm

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Learning Goals 1. Describe factors that influence sexual motivation and behavior 2. Discuss the relation between sexuality and adjustment 3. Explain aspects of sexuality that can be harmful

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR The Biology of Sex Sensations, Perceptions, and Cognitions Culture and Sexual Motivation Gender and Sexual Motivation Sexual Orientation Sexual Patterns in the United States

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Biology of Sex  Human sexual response pattern consists of: – excitement phase – plateau phase – orgasm – resolution

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hormones  Estrogens - class of hormones that predominate in females and are produced by the ovaries  Androgens - class of hormones that predominate in males and are produced by testes in males and the adrenal glands in both males and females – Testosterone is an androgen – For human males, higher androgen levels are associated with sexual motivation and orgasm frequency

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sensations, Perceptions, and Cognitions  Women are more aroused by touch  Men are more aroused by vision  Pheromones - scented substances that are powerful sexual attractants in some animals – Role of pheromones in humans is being debated  Cognition plays an important role in sexuality

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Culture and Sexual Motivation  Two sexual scripts in the U.S. culture are: – traditional religious script - sex is accepted only within marriage – romantic script - sex is synonymous with love (if a person is in love, acceptable to have sex) Sexual scripts = stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender and Sexual Motivation  Females learn to link sexual intercourse with love more than males do  Male sexual script emphasizes sexual conquest, and does not intertwine sex and love  Double Standard - belief that many sexual activities are acceptable for males but not females

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender and Sexual Motivation  Men report more frequent feelings of sexual arousal and rate the strength of their sex drive higher than women  For women, sexuality is strongly linked to a close relationship  Many of these gender differences are seen in homosexual as well as heterosexual relationships

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexual Orientation  Sexual orientation is a continuum from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality Sexual orientation = an enduring attraction toward members of one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or members of the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved What Causes Sexual Orientation?  Homosexuals and heterosexuals have similar physiological responses during sexual arousal  Research has found no differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals in a wide range of attitudes, behaviors, and adjustments

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved What Causes Sexual Orientation?  No conclusive biological cause of homosexuality has been found  An individual’s sexual orientation is most likely determined by a combination of genetic, hormonal, cognitive, and environmental factors

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies Involving Gays and Lesbians 1. Develop a bicultural identity 2. Join an organization for gay, lesbian, and/or bisexual individuals 3. Be tolerant of the sexual orientation of others

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexual Patterns in the United States  In 1948, Alfred Kinsey reported that half of American men had engaged in extramarital sex – Kinsey did not use a representative sample  In 1994, Robert Michael reported results from a large and representative sample – Michael found Americans’ sexual lives are more conservative than previously believed

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 1 – What are some important biological factors in sexual behavior and motivation? – What non-biological factors influence sexual arousal and activity? – How does culture affect sexual behaviors? – How does the sexual motivation of men and women differ? – What causes sexual orientation? – What are the characteristics of the sexual activity of typical Americans?

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SEXUALITY AND ADJUSTMENT Sexual Communication Sexual Myths and Sex Education Contraception Psychosexual Dysfunctions and Disorders

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexual Communication  Sex can be conceptualized as a form of communication in a relationship – Sexual communication is both verbal and nonverbal

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Effective Communication in Sexual Relationships 1. It is normal to feel uncomfortable talking about sex with a partner 2. Take responsibility for your sexual needs 3. Learn about your partner’s sexual needs 4. Criticize constructively 5. Handle criticism effectively 6. If you mean no, say no 7. Pay attention to nonverbal cues

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexual Myths  Some sexual myths: – men need a large penis to satisfy a woman – male and female orgasm are necessary for satisfaction – intercourse is the only real sexual act – good sex has to be spontaneous – for men to have questions or problems in sex is a crime  Women and men have similar desires for sexual pleasure

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sex Education  A large majority of U.S. adolescents say they cannot talk freely about sex with their parents  Most U.S. parents prefer to let schools do the job of educating their children about sex  U.S. sex education typically has focused on hazards of sex and the need to protect adolescent females from male predators

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Contraception  The most popular contraceptives among older adolescents and adults are the pill and the diaphragm  Younger adolescents are more likely to use a condom or withdrawal

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Contraception  Main contraceptive choices: – oral contraceptives – condoms – diaphragm – spermicides – IUD – Norplant – Depo-Provera – Tubal ligation – vasectomy

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychosexual Dysfunctions Psychosexual dysfunctions = disorders that involve impairments in the sexual response pattern, either in the desire for gratification or the ability to achieve it

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 13.7 Prevalence of Sexual Problems in U.S. Men and Women

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Treatment for Psychosexual Dysfunctions  Recent treatments that focus directly on each sexual dysfunction have reached success rates of 90% or more  Viagra success rate in treating impotence is up to 80%

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Paraphilias Paraphilias = psychosexual disorders in which the source of an individual’s satisfaction is an unusual object, ritual, or situation

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Paraphilias  Paraphilias include: – Fetishism - reliance on a specific object for gratification – Transvestism - dressing as a member of the opposite sex – Exhibitionism - exposing sexual anatomy for gratification – Voyeurism - observing sex organs or sex acts of others – Sadism - inflicting pain on partner for gratification – Masochism - deriving gratification from receiving pain – Pedophilia - gratification from child

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender Identity Disorder Transsexualism = gender identity disorder in which an individual has an overwhelming desire to become a member of the opposite sex

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 2 – What are some key aspects of effective sexual communication? – What are some widespread myths about sexuality? – What is the range of contraceptives that are available? – What are psychosexual dysfunctions, paraphilias, and gender identity disorder?

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SEXUALITY AND HARM Sexually Transmitted Infections Rape Sexual Harassment Incest Pornography and Violence Against Women

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) = diseases that are contracted primarily through sexual contact

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexually Transmitted Infections  Sexually transmitted infections include: – Gonorrhea – Syphilis – Chlamydia – Genital herpes – HPV (human papilloma virus) – AIDS (caused by human immunodeficiency virus - HIV)

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Protecting Against STIs 1. Know your and your partner’s risk status 2. Obtain medical examinations 3. Have protected sex 4. Don’t have sex with multiple partners

35 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Rape  Rape is traumatic for the victims and those close to them  Sexual dysfunctions occur in 50% of female rape victims Rape = forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent

36 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Rape  Male rapists share these characteristics: – aggression enhances their sense of power or masculinity – they are angry at women in general – they want to hurt and humiliate the victim

37 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Acquaintance Rape  Ten percent of college women reported being raped in their lifetime Date or acquaintance rape = coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted

38 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies Involving Acquaintance Rape for MEN and WOMEN 1. Clearly state your expectations 2. Know that women and men have the right to set limits that need to be respected 3. Consider the consequences 4. If you use alcohol, use it in moderation 5. Report the rape

39 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies Involving Acquaintance Rape for WOMEN 1. Set and reset sexual limits 2. Think about where you go with a man 3. Get to know the person well, first 4. Be careful about sending conflicting messages 5. Educate yourself about men and sex

40 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies Involving Acquaintance Rape for MEN 1. Trust that ‘no’ always means ‘no’ 2. Your partner can change her mind at any time 3. Be aware of cultural expectations 4. Know that a woman who wears provocative clothing is not asking to have sex with you 5. Spending money on a date does not give you the right to have sex 6. Be aware of the consequences of your sexual conduct

41 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexual Harassment  Sexual harassment takes many forms, from sexist remarks and physical contact to blatant propositions and sexual assaults  Sexual harassment is a manifestation of the power of one person over another

42 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Incest  Taboos against incest have developed in virtually all human societies Incest = sex between people who are close relatives

43 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Pornography and Violence Against Women  Pornography showing sexual violence toward women is more likely to slightly increase violence toward women by male viewers than pornography that displays consensual sex with no violence

44 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 3 – What are the main sexually transmitted infections? – What are some key things to know about rape? – What is incest? – What link exists between pornography and violence against women?


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