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Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Perspectives on Gender Gender Comparisons Women’s and Men’s Lives

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Learning Goals 1. Define gender and explain evolutionary, social, and cognitive theories of gender 2. Discuss gender comparisons and classifications 3. Characterize women’s and men’s lives

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER Defining Gender Evolutionary Psychology Theory Social Theories Cognitive Theories

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Defining Gender Gender = the psychological and social dimension of being female or male Gender roles = sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should act, think, or feel

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Evolutionary Psychology Theory  Evolutionary psychology theory - because of their differing roles in reproduction, adaptation during the evolution of humans produced psychological differences between males and females – Multiple sexual liaisons improves likelihood males will pass on their genes – Females’ contributions to gene pool was improved by securing resources for offspring

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Social Theories of Gender  Social role theory - gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men – In most cultures, women have less power and status than men and they control fewer resources

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Social Theories of Gender  Psychoanalytic theory - preschool children develop sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent, then renounce attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identify with same-sex parent  Social cognitive theory - children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation, and through rewards and punishments for gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Theories of Gender  Cognitive developmental theory - children’s gender typing occurs after they think of themselves as boys and girls  Gender schema theory - gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 1 – How can these two terms be defined: gender and gender roles? – What is the evolutionary psychology theory of gender differences? – What are three social theories of gender? – What are two cognitive theories of gender?

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved GENDER COMPARISONS Gender Stereotypes Gender Similarities and Differences Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender Stereotypes Gender stereotypes = general beliefs about females and males

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender Stereotypes  Broverman looked at traits that college students in the 1970 s believed were characteristic of males and females  Instrumental traits were associated with males - independent, aggressive, power-oriented  Expressive traits were associated with females - being warm and sensitive – These traits are unequal in terms of social states and power

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Stereotyping and Culture  Research study in 1982 found stereotyping of females and males prevalent in thirty countries – Males were believed to be dominant, independent, aggressive, achievement oriented, and enduring – Females were believed to be nurturing, affiliative, less esteemed, and more helpful in times of distress  More recently, traditional gender stereotypes and gender roles have been challenged, and social inequalities between men and women have diminished

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender Stereotypes and Ethnicity  We have stereotypes of age as well as gender  We have stereotypes of gender and ethnicity

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sexism  Prejudice and discrimination against women has a long history Sexism = prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of his or her sex

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Physical Similarities and Differences  There are many physical differences between males and females – Females have a longer life expectancy than males – Males have higher levels of stress hormones – Some brain differences have been found between males and females

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Similarities and Differences  Some research suggests boys are better at math and science  Girls are better students, and significantly better in reading  Janet Hyde (2004) argues that cognitive differences between females and males are exaggerated

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Socioemotional Similarities and Differences  Boys are more physically aggressive than girls  Girls are as verbally aggressive as boys  Girls show more relational aggression (behaviors such as spreading rumors)  Males usually show less self-regulation of emotions and behavior than females

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Interpretation of Gender Differences  Traditionally, differences between males and females were interpreted as biologically-based deficiencies in females  Feminists fear research finding differences will promote stereotypes that women are inferior to men  Alice Eagly argues this fear has biased research interpretation

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny  Sandra Bem (1974) developed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory to measure androgyny Androgyny = presence of a high degree of feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny  Individuals can be classified as having one of four gender-role orientations on Bem’s scale: – androgynous – feminine – masculine – undifferentiated  Androgynous women and men are more flexible and more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny Gender-role transcendence = thinking about ourselves and others as people, not as masculine, feminine, or androgynous

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 2 – What is gender stereotyping and how extensive is it? – What are some physical, cognitive, and socioemotional differences in gender? – What are some alternatives to classifying behavior and traits as masculine or feminine?

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved WOMEN’S AND MEN’S LIVES Women’s Lives Men’s Lives

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Women’s Lives  In much of the world, people’s lives are governed by traditional gender roles that assign a subordinate status to women – In politics, especially in developing countries, women are treated as burdens rather than assets – Women’s work around the world is more limiting and narrow than men’s  Canada, the United States, and Russia have the highest percentages of educated women

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ethnic Minority Women in the United States  For Asian-American women, gender roles found in the mainstream clash with traditions of ancestors  African-American women take time for consideration before solving problems  Mexican women assume the expressive role of homemaker and caretaker of children

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychological Health  U.S. women face some special stressors because they are women: – domestic violence – rape – sexism

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychological Health  Although men have increased involvement in family roles, women still bear the largest burden for housework and childcare, even when they work outside the home  Women have more dissatisfaction with their bodies

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Women 1. Recognize your competencies 2. Pay attention to developing your self as well as your relationship 3. Don’t put up with sexism

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Men’s Lives - Ethnic Minority Males  African-American men are more likely to live in poverty  Asian cultural values are reflected in traditional, patriarchal Chinese and Japanese families  Mexican men traditionally assume role of provider, with exaggerated masculinity and aggression  Some Native American tribes are patriarchal

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Role Strain  Men face role strain because male roles are contradictory and inconsistent  Men’s roles can cause strain in areas such as: – health – male-female relationships – male-male relationships

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Men 1. Understand yourself and your emotions 2. Improve your social relationships 3. Lower your health risks

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 3 – What are characteristics of women’s lives? – What are characteristics of men’s lives?


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