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Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Chapter 12: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-2 Chapter Outline Perspectives on Gender Gender Comparisons Women’s and Men’s Lives

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-3 Learning Goals 1. Define gender and explain evolutionary, social, and cognitive theories of gender 2. Discuss gender comparisons and classifications 3. Characterize women’s and men’s lives

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-4 PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER Defining Gender Evolutionary Psychology Theory Social Theories Cognitive Theories

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-5 Defining Gender Gender = the psychological and social dimension of being female or male Gender roles = sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should act, think, or feel

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-6 Evolutionary Psychology Theory  Evolutionary psychology theory - because of their differing roles in reproduction, adaptation during the evolution of humans produced psychological differences between males and females – Multiple sexual liaisons improves likelihood males will pass on their genes – Females’ contributions to gene pool was improved by securing resources for offspring

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-7 Social Theories of Gender  Social role theory - gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men – In most cultures, women have less power and status than men and they control fewer resources

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-8 Social Theories of Gender  Psychoanalytic theory - preschool children develop sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent, then renounce attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identify with same-sex parent  Social cognitive theory - children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation, and through rewards and punishments for gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-9 Cognitive Theories of Gender  Cognitive developmental theory - children’s gender typing occurs after they think of themselves as boys and girls  Gender schema theory - gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-10 Review - Learning Goal 1 – How can these two terms be defined: gender and gender roles? – What is the evolutionary psychology theory of gender differences? – What are three social theories of gender? – What are two cognitive theories of gender?

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-11 GENDER COMPARISONS Gender Stereotypes Gender Similarities and Differences Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-12 Gender Stereotypes Gender stereotypes = general beliefs about females and males

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-13 Gender Stereotypes  Broverman looked at traits that college students in the 1970 s believed were characteristic of males and females  Instrumental traits were associated with males - independent, aggressive, power-oriented  Expressive traits were associated with females - being warm and sensitive – These traits are unequal in terms of social states and power

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-14 Stereotyping and Culture  Research study in 1982 found stereotyping of females and males prevalent in thirty countries – Males were believed to be dominant, independent, aggressive, achievement oriented, and enduring – Females were believed to be nurturing, affiliative, less esteemed, and more helpful in times of distress  More recently, traditional gender stereotypes and gender roles have been challenged, and social inequalities between men and women have diminished

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-15 Gender Stereotypes and Ethnicity  We have stereotypes of age as well as gender  We have stereotypes of gender and ethnicity

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-16 Sexism  Prejudice and discrimination against women has a long history Sexism = prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of his or her sex

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-17 Physical Similarities and Differences  There are many physical differences between males and females – Females have a longer life expectancy than males – Males have higher levels of stress hormones – Some brain differences have been found between males and females

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-18 Cognitive Similarities and Differences  Some research suggests boys are better at math and science  Girls are better students, and significantly better in reading  Janet Hyde (2004) argues that cognitive differences between females and males are exaggerated

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-19 Socioemotional Similarities and Differences  Boys are more physically aggressive than girls  Girls are as verbally aggressive as boys  Girls show more relational aggression (behaviors such as spreading rumors)  Males usually show less self-regulation of emotions and behavior than females

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-20 Interpretation of Gender Differences  Traditionally, differences between males and females were interpreted as biologically-based deficiencies in females  Feminists fear research finding differences will promote stereotypes that women are inferior to men  Alice Eagly argues this fear has biased research interpretation

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-21 Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny  Sandra Bem (1974) developed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory to measure androgyny Androgyny = presence of a high degree of feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-22 Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny  Individuals can be classified as having one of four gender-role orientations on Bem’s scale: – androgynous – feminine – masculine – undifferentiated  Androgynous women and men are more flexible and more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-23 Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny Gender-role transcendence = thinking about ourselves and others as people, not as masculine, feminine, or androgynous

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-24 Review - Learning Goal 2 – What is gender stereotyping and how extensive is it? – What are some physical, cognitive, and socioemotional differences in gender? – What are some alternatives to classifying behavior and traits as masculine or feminine?

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-25 WOMEN’S AND MEN’S LIVES Women’s Lives Men’s Lives

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-26 Women’s Lives  In much of the world, people’s lives are governed by traditional gender roles that assign a subordinate status to women – In politics, especially in developing countries, women are treated as burdens rather than assets – Women’s work around the world is more limiting and narrow than men’s  Canada, the United States, and Russia have the highest percentages of educated women

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-27 Ethnic Minority Women in the United States  For Asian-American women, gender roles found in the mainstream clash with traditions of ancestors  African-American women take time for consideration before solving problems  Mexican women assume the expressive role of homemaker and caretaker of children

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-28 Psychological Health  U.S. women face some special stressors because they are women: – domestic violence – rape – sexism

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-29 Psychological Health  Although men have increased involvement in family roles, women still bear the largest burden for housework and childcare, even when they work outside the home  Women have more dissatisfaction with their bodies

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-30 Adjustment Strategies for Women 1. Recognize your competencies 2. Pay attention to developing your self as well as your relationship 3. Don’t put up with sexism

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-31 Men’s Lives - Ethnic Minority Males  African-American men are more likely to live in poverty  Asian cultural values are reflected in traditional, patriarchal Chinese and Japanese families  Mexican men traditionally assume role of provider, with exaggerated masculinity and aggression  Some Native American tribes are patriarchal

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-32 Role Strain  Men face role strain because male roles are contradictory and inconsistent  Men’s roles can cause strain in areas such as: – health – male-female relationships – male-male relationships

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-33 Adjustment Strategies for Men 1. Understand yourself and your emotions 2. Improve your social relationships 3. Lower your health risks

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-34 Review - Learning Goal 3 – What are characteristics of women’s lives? – What are characteristics of men’s lives?


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