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THE IPM PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE UPLAND- LOELAND CONTINUUM OF RICE ECOLOGIES K.P. SIBUGA Sokoine University of Agriculture Department of Crop.

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Presentation on theme: "THE IPM PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE UPLAND- LOELAND CONTINUUM OF RICE ECOLOGIES K.P. SIBUGA Sokoine University of Agriculture Department of Crop."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE IPM PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE UPLAND- LOELAND CONTINUUM OF RICE ECOLOGIES K.P. SIBUGA Sokoine University of Agriculture Department of Crop Science and Production Morogoro, Tanzania Africa Rice Congress 31 July – 4 th August, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

2 Outline Introduction Rice production ecologies General overview Production constraints Pests The IPM philosophy Conceptual framework for IPM Challenges Opportunities The way forward

3 Introduction The rice continuum - Five main ecosystems in Africa Upland dominant (55%) cf. 11% for irrigated Implications on productivity Implications on pests (eg weeds)

4 Rice in Africa: Area West Africa leads the way Rice area by region (Oteng & SantAnna, 2003)

5 Rice in Africa:Volumes Rice production by region (Oteng &SantAnna, 2003) West Africa leads the way

6 Trends in rice grain yields in Africa Little change Situation likely to change in 2000s Oteng and SantAnna, 2003

7 Production constraints De Datta, 1981) Pest manag.

8 Pests – Insects, diseases, nematodes, weeds, birds, rodents contribute to yield gap type II AGM AGM damage

9 Pest variability exists in the continuum:  Occurrence (by species)  Season  Severity of damage caused  General crop management practices  Control practices

10 Pest management??? Other options exist!!

11 The IPM philosophy IPM – Utilizing all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible manner (FAO, 1967) Initially developed for high input systems to counter extensive use of pesticide (insecticides*) First developed in the USA (1960s), transferred to Asia (1970s) then Africa (1980s) Initially IPM = Integrated management of insects Current definition of PEST is more inclusive

12 Conceptual framework for IPM Pest identification Prioritize-farmer perception Control options available? Appropriate IPM combinations Apply IPM technologies M & E for effectiveness and/or modification

13 What should constitute an effective IPM strategy for rice Deliberate efforts to minimize pest occurrence (crop management) Rational use of pesticides (if absolutely necessary) IPM packages for specific situations (No universal IPM prescriptions!)

14 The challenges Reliable inventories for cause & effects of pests down the continuum RESOURCES Defined IPM goals for specific ecosystems Farmers/E able to recognize pests/symptoms (training) Technology options within farmers’ reach/capability User-friendly decision making tools developed and disseminated to relevant stakeholders

15 The opportunities 1. IPM is widely endorsed as official philosophy by governments, researchers, NGOs’ donor agencies in SAA (Orr, 2003) Resources required to turn policies into activities: - human - financial - physical

16 The opportunities 2. Change in farmers’ attitude towards commercialization of rice Eager to share/learn new ideas Participatory learning and tech. Dev. (FFS model) HH labour available(?)

17 The opportunities 3.Tougher regulations on pesticides Concerns on E & NRM ( soil, water, beneficials ) High pesticide prices

18 The opportunities 4. Organization and partnership: WARDA, ECARRN, NARS, Universities, NGOs, Farmers NERICAs – a breakthrough vs pests?

19 Can IPM contribute to the ‘African Green Revolution’ – Way forward –Bottom up – based on real pressing pest problems as per farmer perception – Science led IPM through partnership (Incorporating molecular techniques) –Participatory – making use of farmers’ IK (where appropriate)

20 Research Communication Food for future Africans IPM as part and parcel of ICM

21 Acknowledgement WARDA ECARRN GoT (MAFC) SUA

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