Presentation on theme: "THE IPM PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE UPLAND- LOELAND CONTINUUM OF RICE ECOLOGIES K.P. SIBUGA Sokoine University of Agriculture Department of Crop."— Presentation transcript:
THE IPM PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE UPLAND- LOELAND CONTINUUM OF RICE ECOLOGIES K.P. SIBUGA Sokoine University of Agriculture Department of Crop Science and Production Morogoro, Tanzania Africa Rice Congress 31 July – 4 th August, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Outline Introduction Rice production ecologies General overview Production constraints Pests The IPM philosophy Conceptual framework for IPM Challenges Opportunities The way forward
Introduction The rice continuum - Five main ecosystems in Africa Upland dominant (55%) cf. 11% for irrigated Implications on productivity Implications on pests (eg weeds)
Rice in Africa: Area West Africa leads the way Rice area by region (Oteng & SantAnna, 2003)
Rice in Africa:Volumes Rice production by region (Oteng &SantAnna, 2003) West Africa leads the way
Trends in rice grain yields in Africa Little change Situation likely to change in 2000s Oteng and SantAnna, 2003
Production constraints De Datta, 1981) Pest manag.
Pests – Insects, diseases, nematodes, weeds, birds, rodents contribute to yield gap type II AGM AGM damage
Pest variability exists in the continuum: Occurrence (by species) Season Severity of damage caused General crop management practices Control practices
Pest management??? Other options exist!!
The IPM philosophy IPM – Utilizing all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible manner (FAO, 1967) Initially developed for high input systems to counter extensive use of pesticide (insecticides*) First developed in the USA (1960s), transferred to Asia (1970s) then Africa (1980s) Initially IPM = Integrated management of insects Current definition of PEST is more inclusive
Conceptual framework for IPM Pest identification Prioritize-farmer perception Control options available? Appropriate IPM combinations Apply IPM technologies M & E for effectiveness and/or modification
What should constitute an effective IPM strategy for rice Deliberate efforts to minimize pest occurrence (crop management) Rational use of pesticides (if absolutely necessary) IPM packages for specific situations (No universal IPM prescriptions!)
The challenges Reliable inventories for cause & effects of pests down the continuum RESOURCES Defined IPM goals for specific ecosystems Farmers/E able to recognize pests/symptoms (training) Technology options within farmers’ reach/capability User-friendly decision making tools developed and disseminated to relevant stakeholders
The opportunities 1. IPM is widely endorsed as official philosophy by governments, researchers, NGOs’ donor agencies in SAA (Orr, 2003) Resources required to turn policies into activities: - human - financial - physical
The opportunities 2. Change in farmers’ attitude towards commercialization of rice Eager to share/learn new ideas Participatory learning and tech. Dev. (FFS model) HH labour available(?)
The opportunities 3.Tougher regulations on pesticides Concerns on E & NRM ( soil, water, beneficials ) High pesticide prices
The opportunities 4. Organization and partnership: WARDA, ECARRN, NARS, Universities, NGOs, Farmers NERICAs – a breakthrough vs pests?
Can IPM contribute to the ‘African Green Revolution’ – Way forward –Bottom up – based on real pressing pest problems as per farmer perception – Science led IPM through partnership (Incorporating molecular techniques) –Participatory – making use of farmers’ IK (where appropriate)
Research Communication Food for future Africans IPM as part and parcel of ICM