Relevant Laws Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) 1985 – Farmers paid for land placed in reserve Food Security Act 1985 – Farmers must develop and implement soil conservation programs to remain eligible for subsidies, etc. 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act – Subsidies: price supports and farm income
Types of Pesticides How pesticides differ 1. 2. 3.
Types of Pesticides Biological – Living organisms – Ladybugs Carbamates (urethanes) – Affect nervous system – Very water soluble – Potent (100g = 2000g DDT)
Types of Pesticides Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT) – Affect nervous system – Persistent Can remain in ecosystem for up to 15 years Fumigants – Sterilize soil – Prevent pest infestation of stored grain
Types of Pesticides Organophosphates - Dursban – Extremely toxic – affects nervous system – Not persistent in environment
Costs and Benefits Many pests have increased in numbers –
Pros of Pesticides Kill unwanted pests that cause disease Increased food supplies More food means less expensive Newer pesticides are safer and more specific Reduced labor cost Agriculture is more profitable
Cons of Pesticides Accumulate in food chains Pests develop resistance $5-10 in damage done environmentally for every $1 spent Expensive Biomagnification in aquatic environments (runoff) Ineffective – only 5% reaches a pest Threatens endangered species, pollinators, human health
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Pest control strategy that uses many methods Reduce or eliminate traditional pesticides Goal is to control numbers, not eradicate
Relevant Laws Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, & Rodenticide Control Act (FIFRA) 1947 – Regulates manufacture and use of pesticides Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act 1972 – Requires registration of all pesticides in US commerce
Relevant Laws Food Quality Protection Act 1996 – Emphasizes protection of infants and children in reference to pesticide residue in food
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