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1This training tool is brought to you by ARC Training ToolsAlabama Retail is committed to partnering with our members to create and keep safe workplaces.Be sure to check out all of the training tools that are available in our Safety Library.This training tool is brought to you by
2Food Service Safety Slide Show Notes Today we’re going to talk about food service safety. This topic is very important because people can get sick if germs, viruses, pesticides, or cleaning agents get into food or drinks.In food service clean is not the same as safe. Hands can look clean, but if they’re contaminated with germs, they are not safe. Food can look and smell good, but if it is not handled properly, germs can poison it and make consumers sick.That’s why you need to know what you can do on the job to help prevent food poisoning. Today, we’ll cover all the key steps from good hygiene to proper food handling and making sure food service materials and equipment are clean and safe to use.
3Session Objectives Identify foodborne hazards Follow washing and hygiene rulesHandle food service items safelyReceive, store, and cook food properlyCool, thaw, reheat, and dispose of food safelyWash dishes and equipment correctlySlide Show NotesThe main objective of this session is to learn how to keep food safe and prevent food poisoning. By the time this session is over, you should be able to:Identify foodborne hazards;Follow washing and hygiene rules;Handle food service items safely to prevent contamination;Receive, store, and cook food properly;Cool, thaw, reheat, and dispose of food safely; andWash dishes and equipment correctly.
5Wash Hands and Arms To Eliminate Germs Wet hands and arms with warm waterRub hands together briskly with soapRub soap up your forearms to your elbowsRinse hands and arms under running waterDry hands and arms with paper towelsSlide Show NotesTo get rid of the contamination that causes foodborne illness, you need to wash your hands and forearms often when working with food and drinks. Use a sink designed for hand washing. Don’t wash in sinks intended for food preparation, dishwashing, or for handling mop water.To effectively remove germs from your skin, begin by wetting your hands and forearms with warm water.Use soap, and rub your hands together briskly, making sure to lather your fingers, finger tips, the areas between fingers, and your palms. Pay particular attention to the areas underneath your fingernails where germs can hide.Be sure to rub the soap all the way up your forearms to the elbows.Then rinse arms and hands thoroughly with clean, warm running water.Finally, dry your hands and arms with clean, disposable paper towels or an air dryer. Never use a dishtowel or apron to dry your hands. They might contain germs and your clean hands would get covered with germs all over again.Do you always wash your hands and forearms carefully with soap and water before working with food and drinks? That’s an important way to prevent foodborne illness.Discuss your hand washing policy and demonstrate proper procedure.
8Other Good Hygiene Practices Eat, drink, and smoke only in designated areasWear hair in restraints or hatsKeep fingernails clean and trimmedDon’t wear jewelryKeep work clothing and aprons cleanSlide Show NotesIn addition to washing, you also need to use other good hygiene practices to prevent foodborne illness. For example:Only eat, drink, or smoke in designated areas where exposed food, clean equipment, and clean utensils can’t become contaminated. It is generally permissible to drink from a closed container in food service areas if the container is handled in such a way to prevent contamination of your hands, the container, and any exposed food or equipment.You need to wear a hat or hair restraint such as a hair covering or net, beard restraint, or other clothing that covers hair on head or face. This prevents hair from contacting exposed food, clean equipment or utensils, and wrapped single-use items. Generally, employees who pose little risk of contaminating food during preparation, such as counter staff, hostesses, and waitstaff, are not required to wear hair restraints.Another important hygiene practice is to keep fingernails clean and trimmed. Do not wear fingernail polish or artificial nails when working with food.Don’t wear jewelry, including medical information jewelry, on your arms or fingers, either. However, a plain wedding band is acceptable.Also wear clean work clothing and aprons to prevent contamination of food equipment, utensils, linen, and so forth.
9Additional Steps to Prevent Food Contamination Use utensils to handle ready-to-eat foodMinimize bare hand contact with foodChange utensils between raw foodsUse utensils only once when taste testingSlide Show NotesIn addition to washing and practicing good hygiene, you can prevent food contamination in other ways, too. For example, don’t touch exposed ready-to-eat food with your bare hands. Use suitable materials and utensils, such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment. The only exception is when washing fruits and vegetables.When handling exposed food that is not in a ready-to-eat form, take steps to minimize bare hand contact.Don’t use the same utensils from raw food to raw food.And when tasting food, use tasting utensils only once for each taste test.Can you think of any other steps you take routinely to help prevent food contamination?Lead a discussion about other steps trainees take to prevent food contamination.
11Equipment, Utensils, and Linens Store utensils properlyReplace linens after food contactClean and sanitize wiping clothsSlide Show NotesYou also have to be careful that food only comes into contact with surfaces and materials that are clean and properly sanitized.This means that during pauses in food preparation or dispensing, utensils must be stored to prevent contamination. If utensils are stored in the food, the handles must be above the food and the container. Utensils may be placed on a surface of the preparation table or cooking equipment if the surface is cleaned and sanitized. Utensils may be placed in cool running water for moist foods such as ice cream or in containers of water maintained at a temperature of 140° Fahrenheit.Linens and napkins can’t be used in contact with food unless they are used to line a container of food, such as a basket of bread, and the linens are replaced each time the container is refilled.Cloths or linens used to wipe up food spills can’t be used for any other purpose, and they should be changed regularly. Dry cloths can be used for wiping food spills from tableware and carry-out containers. Wet cloths used for wiping spills must be properly cleaned and stored in a chemical sanitizer solution—for example, a ratio of 1 teaspoon of bleach to 1 gallon of cool water. Cloths used with raw meat, fish, or poultry must be kept separate from cloths used for other purposes.
12Equipment, Utensils, and Linens (cont.) Change disposable gloves between tasksClean equipment after each useUse new tableware for second portionsSlide Show NotesSingle-use gloves can only be used for one task, such as working with ready-to-eat food or raw meat. They must be discarded when changing to other tasks or when they are damaged or soiled. Cut-resistant and cloth gloves should only be used in direct contact with food that will be cooked. Wearing a single-use glove over a cut-resistant glove is appropriate for food that is not going to be cooked.Equipment and cutting boards must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. This includes equipment such as meat slicers or grinders.New tableware and plates must be used for second portions. And when refilling a consumer’s drinking cup or glass, prevent contact between the pitcher and the lip of the cup or glass.Think about the way you handle equipment, utensils, and linens. Do you always take proper precautions to prevent food contamination?Discuss specific requirements for handling food preparation and service equipment, utensils, and linen to prevent foodborne illness.
13Preventing Contamination By Consumers Display foods use:Packaging, salad bar guards, display casesCondiments:In dispensers, behind display guards, individually packagedSelf service:Use appropriate utensilsBuffets and salad bars:MonitorSlide Show NotesFood on display must be protected from consumer contamination by the use of packaging, a counter, service line, salad bar guard, display cases, or other effective contamination barriers. Nuts in the shell and whole and raw fruits and vegetables intended for peeling or washing before use do not require protection.Condiments should be protected from contamination by one of three methods. You can keep them in dispensers that are designed to provide protection—for example, a closed squeeze bottle or a closed container with a dispensing pump. You can put them under display guards with proper utensils such as tongs or ladles. Or you can provide them in individual packages.Utensils such as ladles, tongs, and spoons must be provided for consumer self-service operations of ready-to-eat foods in order to prevent contamination.And, consumer self-service operations such as salad bars and buffets must be monitored by trained food service employees.
14Food Service Safety Basics: True or False? Salmonella is a common food bacteria.Rinsing hands in water is enough to kill germs.You can wear a pair of disposable gloves all day.Washing is only required before starting work and after using the restroom.Slide Show NotesLet’s take a few minutes now to test your knowledge of the information presented in the previous slides. All you have to do is decide whether the statements on the screen are true or false. Let’s begin.Salmonella is a common bacteria found in food. True or false? The correct answer is true. It can grow in dairy products, poultry, and eggs.Rinsing hands in water is enough to kill germs. True or false? The correct answer is false. You need to use soap and wash hands and forearms carefully.You can wear a pair of disposable gloves all day. True or false? The correct answer is false. These gloves should be used only for one task and then discarded. They should also be discarded while performing the same task if they are damaged or soiled.Washing is only required before starting work and after using the restroom. True or false? The correct answer is false. There are other times when you should wash—for example, after handling raw meat or poultry, after handling trash or dirty utensils, and after sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue.How did you do? Did you get all the answers right?
15Food Service Safety Basics Do you understand about:Foodborne illness?Washing requirements?Preventing contamination?Handling equipment, utensils, and linens?Staying home if you’re sick?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far. For example, do you understand:What foodborne illness is and why it’s a hazard?Washing requirements and other good hygiene practices?Preventing contamination by employees and consumers?Handling equipment, utensils, and linens safely?Staying home from work if you’re sick?This information will help you make the right decisions and do the right things to keep food and equipment safe and free from germs that can cause illness.Answer any questions trainees have about the information presented in the previous slides.Conduct an exercise, if appropriate.Let’s continue to the next slide now and talk about receiving foods.
20Cooking to Destroy Germs Slide Show NotesBacteria and other germs need time, food, and moisture to grow, but they can’t grow when the temperature of the food is colder than 45° Fahrenheit or 7° Celsius, or hotter than 140° Fahrenheit or 60° Celsius. Temperatures in between are in the danger zone. Keep foods out of the danger zone and you can prevent foodborne illness.Using a food thermometer to check temperatures to make sure foods are properly cooked is another way to help prevent foodborne illness. Place the thermometer in the thickest part of the meat or the center of the food to get a true reading.All poultry and stuffing must reach a temperature of 165° Fahrenheit or 74° Celsius, or hotter, to destroy salmonella and other bacteria.Ground beef must be cooked to at least 155° Fahrenheit or 68° Celsius. This includes hamburger for taco meat and meatloaf.Pork must be cooked to at least 150° Fahrenheit or 66° Celsius to prevent trichinosis, a very serious illness caused by parasites.Rare beef can safely be cooked to only 130° Fahrenheit or 54° Celsius, as long as it’s served right away.Beef, lamb, fish, and seafood must be cooked to 140° Fahrenheit or 60° Celsius, or hotter, to kill bacteria.Poultry and stuffing: 165ºFUse thermometersHamburger: 155ºFBeef, lamb, fish, seafood: 140ºFRare beef: 130ºFKeep away from “danger zone”Pork: 150ºF
23Reheating Reheat food up to 165ºF Let microwaved food stand for 2 minutesUse a stove, oven, or double boilerReheat rapidly, within 2 hoursSlide Show NotesSome food that is cooked, then cooled, and then reheated must be reheated so that all parts of the food reach a temperature of 165° Fahrenheit or 74° Celsius. You need to check that with a food thermometer.When you reheat, be sure to do it rapidly. The time it takes to reach 165° from the cool storage temperature should not exceed 2 hours. Slowly reheating foods allows the food to be in the danger zone too long.Use the stove burners, a convection oven, or a double boiler to quickly reheat food. Stir the food during the reheating process.You can also use a microwave to reheat food to a minimum temperature of 165° Fahrenheit. When using a microwave be sure food is rotated and stirred, covered, and then allowed to stand for 2 minutes after reheating.
24Hot and Cold Holding Hold hot foods at 140ºF or above Hold cooked roasts at 130ºF or aboveHold cold foods at 41ºF or belowSlide Show NotesHot foods must be held at 140° Fahrenheit or above to keep them warm enough to prevent the growth of germs. Use steam tables, soup warmers, and heated surfaces when holding food. Periodically check the temperature of the food. Stir liquids and keep covers on.Properly cooked roasts may be held at a temperature of 130° Fahrenheit or above.And, cold foods must be held at a temperature of 41° Fahrenheit or below. If ice is used in salad bars or food displays, be sure the ice comes up to the level of the food in the container. The food being used in the bar or display must be colder than 41° Fahrenheit when you put in the ice.Think about the procedures we follow to hold hot and cold foods safely.Review your procedures for holding hot and cold food to prevent foodborne illness.
25Not heated or cooled in a timely manner In a container without a date Food DisposalNot heated or cooled in a timely mannerIn a container without a dateContaminatedAdulteratedSlide Show NotesFood must be discarded if it has not been cooled or heated to the appropriate temperature within the time required for safety. If the freezer, refrigerator, or hot holding equipment fails and the temperature of the food is in the danger zone, then the food must also be discarded.You should also dispose of food in a container or package that is not labeled or dated or is past the expiration date.Food should also be discarded if it has become unsafe or adulterated, such as if something unnecessary has been added or if you suspect that bacteria is growing in the food.And, be sure to dispose of any ready-to-eat food that may have been contaminated by a sick employee. Also dispose of food that has been contaminated by employees, consumers, or others through contact with hands, sneezing, coughing, or other means.Think about our rules for when you should dispose of food and be sure that you always follow them.Review your rules for disposing of food.
28Safe Food Handling: Match Game Sit time after microwave reheat140ºFHolding temp for cold food45ºF-140ºFHolding temp for hot food165ºFMax reheating time2 mins.Danger zoneSlide Show NotesNow let’s see how much you remember about some important temperatures involved in safe food handling. Your job is to match the temperatures listed in the column on the left to the descriptions in the right column. Use your mouse to click and draw lines between your matches.OK, go ahead and begin. [PAUSE] How did you do? Did you get all the matches right? Let’s quickly review.41º Fahrenheit or 5º Celsius is the holding temperature for cold foods.140º Fahrenheit or 60º Celsius is the holding temperature for hot foods.45º to 140º Fahrenheit or 7º to 60º Celsius is the danger zone in which foods are most likely to become contaminated by germs.165º Fahrenheit or 74º Celsius is the minimum temperature to which food must be reheated.2 minutes is the time food should sit after being reheated in the microwave.2 hours is the maximum time for reheating food safely.2 hrs.Reheating minimum temp
29Safe Food Handling Do you understand: Food receiving and storage requirements?Cooking food properly to avoid contamination?Cooling, thawing, and reheating food safely?Hot and cold holding?Disposal of food?Dishwashing?Do you understand:Food receiving and storage requirements?Cooking food properly to avoid contamination?Cooling, thawing, and reheating food safely?Hot and cold holding?Disposal of food?Dishwashing?Slide Show NotesLet’s check now quickly to make sure you understand all the information presented in the previous slides. Do you understand what we’ve said about:Food receiving and storage?Cooking food properly to avoid contamination?Cooling, thawing, and reheating food safely?Hot and cold holding?Disposal of food?Dishwashing?It’s important for you to understand all this information so that you can do your part to prevent foodborne illness.Answer any questions trainees have about the information presented in the previous slides.Conduct an exercise, if appropriate.Now let’s conclude the session with some key points to remember.
30Key Points to Remember Wash hands often on the job. Don’t work when you’re sick.Keep food out of the danger zone.Follow all rules for safe food handling and storage.Keep food service materials and equipment clean and safe.Slide Show NotesHere are the main points to remember from this session on food service safety:Wash hands often on the job.Don’t work when you’re sick.Keep food out of the danger zone.Follow all rules for safe food handling and storage.Keep food service materials and equipment clean and safe.This concludes the food service safety training session.Give trainees the quiz, if appropriate.