Food borne illness - how it occurs? GM’s WK#1 lesson A food borne illness is a disease that is transferred to people by food. There are three types of hazards---biological, physical, and chemical. Moist, high in protein and slightly acidic. Examples are dairy products, eggs, meat and poultry, seafood, raw vegetables, (alfalfa sprouts, cut melons, baked potatoes, beans, rice, and garlic and oil mixtures), and soy products, like tofu. Biological hazards are bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. The key factor in controlling bacterial growth is to control conditions that favor that growth. These are the factors: Food Acidity Time Temperature Oxygen Moisture Monitoring time and temperature can most easily control bacterial growth in food.
Week 1 take back… How foods become unsafe: Remind employees that there are three major factors that can cause food to become unsafe. TIME AND TEMPERATURE ABUSE: The Temperature Danger Zone is 41° to 135°. Move food out of this temperature range by cooking it to the proper temperature, freezing it, or by refrigerating it at 41° or lower. The four-hour rule limits the time food spends in the temperature danger zone. Prepare food in small batches and as close to the time of service as possible. Improper procedures are: Failure to properly cool foods. Cooking incorrectly. Not correctly handling food cooked previously. Allowing food to stay at room temperature for too long.
Food borne illness – cross contamination? GM’s WK#2 (1 of 2 part lessons) A food borne illness is a disease that is transferred to people by food. Contributing Factors: CROSS-CONTAMINATION: How food and food-contact surfaces become contaminated. 1. Raw food comes in hand to hand contact with ready to eat foods. 2. Raw food drips onto ready to eat foods. 3. Food contact surfaces such as cutting boards, knives and splash areas come into contact with raw foods. 4. Raw food is added to food that receives no further cooking. POOR PERSONAL HYGIENE: Humans are the biggest source of foodborne illness because of improper hand washing practice.
Week 2 take back… part 1 How to keep food safe during the flow of food: Here are examples of how food can become unsafe at each step of the flow of food because of time and temperature abuse, cross-contamination, and poor personal hygiene. The steps include: Receiving - Correct temperature Holding - Correct time and temperature Storing - Away from chemicals Serving - Contamination and personal hygiene Preparing - Proper temperature and time Cooling - Correct temperatures Cooking - Know cooking temperatures for various foods Re-heating – Know how to return food to serving condition
Week 2 take back…part 2 The basics of food safety: Keep things clean and sanitized Practice good personal hygiene Wash hands thoroughly and frequently Minimize the time food spends in the temperature danger zone. Prevent cross-contamination How to prevent cross contamination: Create a physical barrier Assign specific equipment to each type of food—separate cutting boards should be used for raw and cooked foods Clean and sanitize tools, equipment and utensils after each task. Create procedural barriers. Prepare raw and ready to eat foods are different times Purchase ingredients that require minimal preparation Time and temperature control: To prevent time and temperature abuse: Cook, hold, cool, and Re-heat food properly.
ENSURING PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE ? GM’s WK#3 A food borne illness is a disease that is transferred to people by food. How employees can contaminate food: 1. When they fail to wash hands after using the restroom, 2. After touching their hair, face, or body and then touching food. 3. By coughing or sneezing near food or food surfaces. 4. By touching or scratching a cut or abrasion and then touching food. 5. After touching anything that can contaminate food. Personal cleanliness practices : A. Report illness B. Shower or bathe daily C. Bandage any cuts and abrasions; always wear gloves over bandages D. Clean and trim fingernails E. Avoid wearing nail polish or false fingernails F. Leave all jewelry at home G. Wear clean uniforms and aprons H. Avoid eating, smoking, or drinking on the job I. Wear a hair restraint when working with food
Week 3 take back…part 1 When and how to wash your hands ???? After using the restroom Before and after handling raw food After touching hair, face, or body After coughing and sneezing into your hands When switching from one task to another After handling chemicals Before and after changing gloves After busing tables After handling cleaning chemicals After handling garbage Before and after a work break After eating, drinking, or smoking Anytime after contact with anything that can contaminate food
Week 3 take back…part 2 How to wash hands in a dedicated hand washing sink: Step 1: Wet hands with hot running water—as hot as you can stand. Step 2: Apply enough soap so that you can build up a good lather. Step 3: Rub hands together for at least twenty seconds. Lather well beyond the wrists and the exposed portions of the arms. Step 4: Clean under fingernails and between fingers. Step 5: Rinse thoroughly under running water. Step 6: Dry hands. How to use gloves properly: Gloves should never be worn in place of hand washing. Employees should change gloves: When they are soiled or torn Before beginning a different task After handling raw meat and before handling cooked or Ready-to-eat food Gloves should only be used over clean hands.