Presentation on theme: "Food Safety 101 Foodborne Illness: Awareness and Prevention"— Presentation transcript:
1Food Safety 101 Foodborne Illness: Awareness and Prevention Level One Certification CourseArea 2Kentucky Department of EducationDivision of School and Community Nutrition
2At the end of this presentation, you will be able to: ObjectivesAt the end of this presentation, you will be able to:Recognize harmful bacteria and viruses;Understand the Danger Zone;Utilize proper techniques to avoid cross contamination;Utilize proper cooking temperatures for cooling, thawing, reheating and holding times and date marking.
3Who is the most vulnerable to foodborne illness? Young children (infants and school-aged)Older adults (elderly)Individuals with compromised immune systems (pregnant, sick, etc.)
4Causes of Foodborne Illness: Let’s look at bacteria The types of bacteria are:Beneficial bacteriaBeneficial bacteria lives in our environment and in our bodies, helping us with digestion, vitamin production and helping to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.Spoilage BacteriaThere are bacteria that live and grow in food that can cause damage to the flavor, appearance, texture or composition of food.PathogensThese are the bacteria that produce disease in the human body. These bacteria are our main concern, as they are responsible for foodborne illness.
5Examples of Harmful Bacteria Foodborne IllnessExamples of Harmful BacteriaIn five hours, a population of bacteria living on food can increase from 1,000 to over 1,000,000! This is more than enough bacteria to make someone very sick.
6Causes of Foodborne Illness: Let’s look at Viruses A virus is much smaller than a bacteria and must live inside a living cell in order to survive and reproduce. It takes very few cells infected with a virus to make a person sick.Personal hygiene, especially washing your hands frequently, are important in preventing foodborne illness caused by viruses.How many people are made ill each year? CDC estimates that 76 million are made ill.
7There are two viruses that are of major concern in food service: Foodborne IllnessThere are two viruses that are of major concern in food service:Norovirus: - Causes nausea, stomach aches, vomiting and diarrhea. - Causes more foodborne illness than all other causes of foodborne illnesses combined. - To prevent the spread of norovirus, you should: - not come to work while sick, - wash your hands frequently (especially after using the bathroom) - avoid eating raw shellfish. Hepatitis A - Causes a serious infection of the liver. - Hand-washing is the most significant way you can prevent the spread of this foodborne illness.
8Now let’s look at: Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF), What are they? Bacteria grows rapidly in environments that are:Moist;Have low acidity levels; orIn/on meat, dairy, eggs, cooked vegetables, rice and pasta.
9Food Storage: Preventing Foods from Becoming Unsafe Potentially Hazardous FoodsFood Storage: Preventing Foods from Becoming UnsafeStorage:Separate raw meats, poultry, seafood and eggs from other foods.These foods should be stored on lower shelves, while cooked and ready-to-eat foods should be stored on higher shelves.This is so there is no opportunity for juices from raw foods to drip and contaminate prepared foods.Recommended Temperatures:Produce: 45° F or belowDairy and Meat: 40° F or belowSeafood: 30° F or below
10Potentially Hazardous Foods RememberAny time you touch raw animal products, Wash Your Hands!Also, be mindful that gloves can be dirty and spread germs as well.
11Potentially Hazardous Foods Don’t forget produce!- Remember that bacteria and viruses can be or grow on the outside of fresh produce. - Since we eat a lot of our produce raw, it is important to wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly to prevent contamination that can lead to illness.- Even though we do not eat the skin on some fruits, when we slice into hard skin, the knife can carry contaminants from the outer skin into the flesh of the fruit or vegetable that we will be eating.Be sure to examine the preparation of the fruit and vegetable as well as how the student will consume the food item. If you are going to cut the fruit or vegetable, be sure to wash the food first. If the student will peel the food themselves and there is no risk of contamination, the necessity to wash the food item is reduced.
12Potentially Hazardous Foods More produce safetyFor soft-skinned fruits and vegetables:Rinse under running water or with a fresh produce rinse product.For firm-skinned fruits and vegetables:Rub under running tap water or with a fresh produce rinse product with your hands, or scrub with a clean vegetable brush.If you are going to eat the skin- wrap the fruit in plastic for self-service situations.
13What is Cross-Contamination? Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food via means of utensils, equipment or human hands to another food. It also can occur when a raw food touches or drips onto a cooked or ready-to-eat food.
16Preventing Cross-Contamination Wash, rinse and sanitize cutting boards, knives, utensils and countertops after contact with raw meat.Store raw meat below and away from all ready-to-eat foods.Wash, rinse and sanitize food- contact equipment (slicers, knives, cutting boards) at least every 4 hours.Wash hands before handling food and after touching raw meat.
17Foreign material can make food unsafe. Cross-ContaminationForeign material can make food unsafe.Foreign materials are any objects in food that are not foods themselves. Foreign material contamination can cause the person who eats the contaminated food to become sick, poisoned, choke or cause damage to their digestive track.
18Examples of Some Harmful Foreign Materials Cross-ContaminationExamples of Some Harmful Foreign Materials
19Preventing Foreign Material Contamination Cross-ContaminationPreventing Foreign Material ContaminationVigilance is the only way to prevent foreign material contamination.Store chemicals away from foods.Frequently inspect utensils and equipment for damage.Discard foods that you believe to be contaminated.
20The Danger Zone: Time and Temperature Abuse Time and temperature abuse is one of the most common ways food becomes infested with bacteria.The longer a food spends (time) in the Danger Zone (temperature) the higher the risk of foodborne illness.
21What is the Danger Zone? Danger Zone The Danger Zone is the range of temperature at which bacteria reproduces the fastest. By limiting time spent in the Danger Zone, we limit bacteria growth.This is why it is important to store raw foods, thaw frozen foods, cook foods, hold foods for service, cool cooked foods, and reheat leftovers to specific temperatures. These temperatures are known to minimize bacteria growth and slow spoilage.
22Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I store raw foods? Produce: 45° F or belowDairy and Meat: 40° F or belowSeafood: 30° F or below
23Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I thaw frozen foods? Frozen foods should be thawed in one of the following ways:In the refrigerator, on a tray.Under cool running water.During the cooking process.In a microwave oven (if food is to be cooked immediately after thawing).
24Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I know if a food is done? We use high temperatures to kill bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms found on and in raw meat, poultry, eggs and seafood.It is important to measure the temperatures of the following foods with a calibrated food thermometer.
25Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I hold for service? Cold foods should be held below 40° F. Examples of cold service foods include salad and yogurt bars.*Hot foods should be held above 140° F. Examples of hot foods include cooked rice, vegetables and meats.*Temperatures for both hot and cold foods should be checked at scheduled intervals and recorded.If the food being held is in the Danger Zone, it should be discarded.*Be sure to check your district policy for holding temperatures.
26Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I cool food for storage? Cooked foods should be rapidly chilled so they spend as little time as possible in the Danger Zone.The Kentucky Food Code requires that potentially hazardous foods are chilled to at least 45° F within 4 hours.Ideally, hot foods should be cooled from 135° F to 70° F within 2 hours and cooled from 70° F to 40° F or less within 4 hours.Room temperature foods should also be cooled to 40° F or less within 4 hours.
27Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I cool foods? Acceptable Cooling MethodsSeparate into smaller portions.Place food in shallow pans.Use containers that facilitate heat transfer.Stir food in container that has been placed in an ice-water bath.Arrange a refrigerator for maximum heat transfer.Use rapid cooling equipment.Add ice as an ingredient.
28Avoiding the Danger Zone: How do I reheat foods? Foods should be reheated quickly to 165° F before serving. Reheating to 165° F will kill bacteria which may have multiplied while food was being cooled.Food that is reheated in the microwave should be allowed to stand for 2 minutes after heating to 165° F to ensure that food is heated throughout.
29Avoiding the Danger Zone: Always keep a record! In order to ensure foods do not stay in the Danger Zone for too long, it is important to keep records.Mark containers with a maximum 4 hour time period in the Danger Zone at the time they are removed from a controlled temperature environment so the food can be discarded if it spends too much time in the Danger Zone.
30Let’s look at Date Marking Date marking ensures that food is either used or discarded before it spoils.It is an important step in reducing risk of foodborne illnesses.
31Date MarkingDate Marking cont.Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, and potentially hazardous foods shall be marked with a “Consume By Date”:At time of preparation, if prepared on the premises and held for over 24 hours.ORAt the time the container is opened, if obtained from a commercial vendor.
32If subsequently frozen: Date MarkingIf subsequently frozen:When the food is thawed, mark that it shall be consumed within 24 hours.Mark at the time of freezing how many days it has already been held at refrigeration. Upon thawing, subtract these days from the new “consume by date”.
33Discard food if: The “consume by date” has expired. Date MarkingDiscard food if:The “consume by date” has expired.The food is not consumed within 24 hours of thawing.The food is not date marked or marked appropriately.
34Lessons learned… Now we can recognize harmful bacteria and viruses; ObjectivesLessons learned…Now we can recognize harmful bacteria and viruses;Understand the Danger Zone;Utilize proper techniques to avoid cross contamination; andUtilize proper cooking temperatures for cooling, thawing, reheating and holding times and date marking.