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Chapter 6: Food Safety & Sanitation

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1 Chapter 6: Food Safety & Sanitation
Preventing Food Bourne Illness

2 Key Terms

3 Preventing Foodborne Illness
There are three main ways to prevent foodborne illness: Personal Hygiene Consists of the actions a person takes to keep his or her body and clothing clean and to remove pathogens Sanitation Consists of the actions taken to prevent and control disease Proper Food Handling Cleaning is the physical removal of dirt and food from surfaces Sanitizing is the treatment of a clean surface with chemicals or heat to reduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safe levels

4 Employee Practices One of the most common sources of food contamination is the hospitality employee. Employee practices that prevent foodborne illness are generally called personal hygiene. Good personal hygiene include: Stay home when sick Keep fingernails short Wash hands properly Wash hands frequently Bathe daily Wear clean clothing Do not wear jewelry Keep hair restrained Control sweat Use gloves when directed Use sanitary serving methods

5 Stay Home When Sick Food service employees should never be on duty when they have diseases that can be transmitted through direct contact with food or other persons Employees who show signs of illness should be reassigned or sent home Signs of illness include: Fever Sneezing Coughing Vomiting Diarrhea Oozing burns and cuts

6 Keep Fingernails Short
Fingernails should be: Trimmed Filed Maintained This ensures that hand washing will effectively remove soil and bacteria from under and around them.

7 Wash Hands Properly Hands easily pick up contaminants, such as bacteria from unclean surfaces, chemicals from cleaning products, or bacteria from the nose or mouth There should be hand washing stations which include Hot water Cold water Soap or detergent

8 Wash Hands Properly Proper hand washing includes;
Vigorously rub surfaces of hands for 20 seconds Clean under fingernails using a brush Dry hands with a single paper towel

9 Wash Hands Frequently Hands should be washed whenever you touch an unclean surface Hands should be washed: After using the restroom Sneezing Nose blowing Wiping away sweat Touching hair Working with raw foods Touching dirty surfaces

10 Bathe Daily Personal cleanliness is important
Lack of personal cleanliness can; Offend customers Cause illnesses Contaminate food or food surfaces

11 Wear Clean Clothing Employees should always wear clean work clothes
Dirty clothing presents two problems: Odor Contamination by bacteria Dirt can enter the business on an employee’s shoes or clothing Ordinary dirt contains many microorganisms from sewage, fertilizer, or street dirt

12 Do Not Wear Jewelry Jewelry should never be worn during food production or dishwashing The following items can collect dirt and cause foodborne illness: Rings Watches Bracelets Necklaces Earrings

13 Keep Hair Restricted Caps, nets, or other hair restraints should be worn to prevent hair from falling into food Hair should be kept clean Dirty hair harbors pathogens and microorganisms

14 Control Sweat Another common source of contamination is sweat.
Food handlers should be careful not to drip sweat onto equipment or into food products A food contact surface is a surface that comes in contact with food.

15 Use Gloves When Directed
Many foodservice operations require the wearing of disposable gloves during food preparation or service Bare hands can harbor bacteria Gloves should be changed after every possible contamination Hands must be washed before gloves are put on

16 Use Sanitary Serving Methods
All tableware and serving utensils must be handled in a sanitary way Do not touch the eating surfaces of tableware when setting tables or when handling and storing utensils Never touch food contact surfaces

17 Food Sources & Storage Food and beverage businesses buy food products from many different sources Once the food is purchased, it must be shipped to the restaurant, then stored

18 Sources Each food source (supplier) has workers who handle food
Each of these places might cause contamination in the food they sell Food sources must be reliable

19 Shipping Reliable suppliers keep food products separate from general supplies during shipping Reliable suppliers also: Protect food packages from becoming damaged or torn Ship products in vehicles that are clean

20 Storage Food must be properly stored to prevent spoilage and contamination The most important rule of storage is first in, first out (FIFO) Store food in approved areas Protect food from: Dust Flies Rodents Toxic materials Unclean equipment

21 Rodent & Insect Control
Pests such as rodents and insects can cause serious problems for restaurants Insects and rodents can contaminate food, spread diseases, and destroy your property Major ways to control pests are through: Good housekeeping Preventing entry Proper disposal of trash Use pesticides as a last resort

22 Equipment, Utensils, and Surfaces
Equipment includes all the devices used to prepare food Utensil are all the small pieces of equipment used in the kitchen, plus all the items used to serve food to guests, including plates, glasses, and silverware

23 Construction The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set standards for equipment and utensils The purpose of the standards is to make sure that the equipment and utensils are easy to clean and sanitize and safe to use

24 Cleaning vs. Sanitizing
Cleaning is the physical removal of soil and food residues from surfaces of equipment, utensils, tables, and floors Sanitizing is the treatment of a surface with chemicals or heat to reduce the number of disease-causing organisms to safe levels

25 Dishwashing Dishwashing is one of the most important jobs in the food and beverage business The purpose of dishwashing is to clean and sanitize equipment, dishware, and utensils Dishwashing is a two-part process: Clean Sanitize

26 Food Handling Food handling most often refers to procedures that prevent the growth of bacteria in foods The two basic rules of food handling are: Keep cold foods cold Keep hot foods hot A holding unit is a piece of equipment that holds food at a specific temperature A thermometer is a tool for measuring temperature A thermostat is an automatic device that regulates the temperature of a piece of equipment

27 Preparing Raw Food Cross-contamination can occur when:
Raw food is placed on a surface, then cooked food is placed on the same surface Cross-contamination takes place from: Food to food transfer Surface to surface transfer Food to surface transfer Not washing hands after handling each item

28 Preparing Raw Food Raw food often has small amounts of pathogens and other contaminants Raw fruits and vegetables often have soil on them Soil contains many microorganisms A major danger when handling raw food is cross-contamination Cross-contamination is the transfer of microorganisms from one food item to another

29 Cooking The first goal of cooking is to make it appetizing
The second goal of cooking is to destroy pathogens or reduce them to safe levels The FDA temperature recommendations are minimum temperature and amount of time the food must be held

30 Cooking Minimum Internal Temperature Minimum Holding Time
FDA Minimum Internal Food Temperature Food Minimum Internal Temperature Minimum Holding Time Beef, Pork, Fish 145°F 15 seconds Ground Meats, Sausage 155°F Poultry, Stuffed Meats, Stuffed Pasta, Stuffing, Casseroles 165°F

31 Procedures to Prevent Cross-Contamination
Thoroughly clean raw food Wash all fruits and vegetables Prepare raw seafood, poultry, and meat on surfaces and with utensils that can be sanitized Do not handle raw foods, including eggs, then touch cooked or foods that will not be cooked Do not let raw foods drip on cooked foods in the refrigerator

32 Cooling, Thawing, & Reheating
Cooling, thawing, and reheating are processes that take time and require food to go through the temperature danger zone Special precautions must be taken to reduce the growth of bacteria during cooling, thawing, and reheating

33 Cooling, Thawing, & Reheating
Process Precautions Steps Cooling Cool as quickly as possible 1. Place food in a clean stainless steel container 2. Place container in cold water or ice bath 3. Stir food during cooling 4. Cool until food reaches 40°F Thawing Keep food from reaching and staying in the temperature danger zone Options * Thaw in original wrapper in the refrigerator * Thaw in original wrapper under cold running water in a sink * Thaw in microwave Reheating Bring to 165°F as quickly as possible Reheat only enough food to meet needs Reheat liquids over direct heat Reheat solid foods in a convection oven Small portions can be reheated in a microwave Never use a steam table to reheat foods.

34 Holding Holding can be defined as keeping potentially hazardous foods out of the temperature danger zone during the period while the food is waiting to be served to guests. Safe handling for cold foods requires that they must be kept at 40°F or below Safe holding for hot foods requires that they must be kept at 140°F or above after cooking


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