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LINKERS AND ADVERBIALS DESPITE IN SPITE OF IN SPITE OF SO THEREFORE CONSEQUENTLY BUT YET WHEREAS WHILE MOREOVER IN ADDITION IN ADDITION FURTHERMORE BESIDES.

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Presentation on theme: "LINKERS AND ADVERBIALS DESPITE IN SPITE OF IN SPITE OF SO THEREFORE CONSEQUENTLY BUT YET WHEREAS WHILE MOREOVER IN ADDITION IN ADDITION FURTHERMORE BESIDES."— Presentation transcript:

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2 LINKERS AND ADVERBIALS DESPITE IN SPITE OF IN SPITE OF SO THEREFORE CONSEQUENTLY BUT YET WHEREAS WHILE MOREOVER IN ADDITION IN ADDITION FURTHERMORE BESIDES IN ADDITION TO IN ADDITION TO SO AS TO vs. SO THAT SO AS TO vs. SO THAT PRACTICE CAUSE AND EFFECT CAUSE AND EFFECT ‘FUNCTION’ BECAUSE SINCE HOWEVER NONETHELESS NEVERTHELESS AS FOR THOUGH ALTHOUGH EVEN THOUGH EVEN THOUGH ON ACCOUNT OF ON ACCOUNT OF OWING TO OWING TO DUE TO DUE TO PRACTICE SO ADJ. THAT SO ADJ. THAT SO ADV THAT SO ADV THAT SUCH ADJ+NOUN THAT SUCH ADJ+NOUN THAT

3 Alice woke up late, so she missed the bus. C A U S E ALICE WOKE UP LATE SHE MISSED THE BUS E F F E C T, SO What brings a resultThe result that follows + effect CLICK WHEN READY. THEREFORE, + effect Alice woke up late. Therefore, she missed the bus. E F F E C T …, SO … …. THEREFORE, … …. CONSEQUENTLY, … + E F F E C T CLICK WHEN READYADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE

4 Because Alice woke up late, she missed the bus. C A U S E ALICE WOKE UP LATE SHE MISSED THE BUS E F F E C T Because What brings a resultThe result that follows + cause CLICK WHEN READY Alice missed the bus because she woke up late. C A U S E CLICK WHEN READY No punctuation is needed when ‘because’ and ‘since’ are in the middle of a sentence. END OF TOPIC

5 CAUSE AND EFFECT S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S BECAUSE + C A U S E, E F F E C T DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E Because there wasn’t enough evidence against him, Alan was acquitted. CLICK WHEN READY SINCE + C A U S E E F F E C T DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E Since he’d left behind his fingerprints, the police was able to identify him. Alan was acquitted because there wasn’t enough evidence against him. CLICK WHEN READY The police was able to identify him s ss since he’d left behind his fingerprints., END OF TOPIC

6 AS + C A U S E, E F F E C T DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E As Josh couldn’t stand up to the bullies, he wanted to change his school. CLICK WHEN READY FOR + C A U S E E F F E C T DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E The police took Meg’s driving licence, as she drove while she was drunk. Josh wanted to change his school, a aa as he couldn’t stand up to the bullies. CLICK WHEN READY Meg’s driving licence has been confiscated, for she drove while intoxicated., AS CAUSE AND EFFECT S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S END OF TOPIC

7 CAUSE AND EFFECT S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S C A U S E, SO + E F F E C T INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Tom had betrayed his friends, s ss so he was outcast. CLICK WHEN READY He duplicates famous paintings. T TT Therefore, he is wanted for forgery. C A U S E. THEREFORE, + E F F E C T INDEPENDENT CLAUSE C A U S E. CONSEQUENTLY, + E F F E C T INDEPENDENT CLAUSE He had been recorded by a surveillance cam. C CC Consequently, he was identified. CLICK WHEN READYEND OF TOPIC

8 CAUSE AND EFFECT S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S CLICK WHEN READY ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDEBECAUSESINCEFORAS STATEMENT + He lied b bb because h hh he is a crook. He lied s ss since h e is a crook. He lied, f ff for e is a crook. He lied, a aa as e is a crook. ON ACCOUNT OF BECAUSE OF OWING TO DUE TO A NOUN + He lied o oo on account of h hh his crooked character. He lied b bb because of his crooked character. He lied o oo owing to h is crooked character. He lied d dd due to is crooked character. Notice ‘on account of’, ‘owing to’ and ‘due to to’ are mostly used in formal language. Traffic accidents are on the increase o oo on account of r rr reckless driving. Traffic accidents are on the increase o oo owing to r eckless driving. Traffic accidents are on the increase d dd due to eckless driving. PERSONAL INFORMAL GENERAL FORMAL

9 CAUSE AND EFFECT S T A T E M E N T o r N O U N ? STATEMENT He likes music CLICK WHEN READY He is a musician S Predicate N O U N His interest in music His career in music N O U N ON ACCOUNT OF BECAUSE OF OWING TO DUE TO CLICK WHEN READY BECAUSESINCEFORAS CLICK TO SEE WHERE EACH PHRASE GOES THE CRIMES HE COMMITTED ? HE COMMITTED MANY CRIMESHE SMUGGLED CARS ORGANIZED CAR SMUGGLINGHIS TREACHERY TO HIS COUNTRYBETRAYING HIS CITIZENS HE WAS TREACHEROUS TO HIS COUNTRY HE HAD HIS HOUSE ROBBED THE ROBBERY IN HIS HOUSE END OF TOPIC

10 EXPRESSING CONTRAST S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S A CONTRASTING CIRCUMSTANCE, BUT + AN UNLIKELY OUTCOME INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Tom had betrayed his country, b bb but he was greeted like a national hero. CLICK WHEN READY He only duplicates famous paintings, y yy yet he is regarded as an artist. A CONTRASTING CIRCUMSTANCE, YET + AN UNLIKELY OUTCOME INDEPENDENT CLAUSE END OF TOPIC

11 EXPRESSING CONTRAST S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S A CONTRASTING CIRCUMSTANCE. HOWEVER, + AN UNLIKELY OUTCOME INDEPENDENT CLAUSE He had told a terrible lie. H HH However, none of us suspected anything. CLICK WHEN READY Cars are equipped with alarm kits. N NN Nevertheless, car theft is on the increase. A CONTRASTING CIRCUMSTANCE. NEVERTHELESS, + AN UNLIKELY OUTCOME INDEPENDENT CLAUSE A CONTRASTING CIRCUMSTANCE. NONETHELESS, + AN UNLIKELY OUTCOME INDEPENDENT CLAUSE There are many speed traps. N NN Nonetheless, some drivers are not deterred. CLICK WHEN READYEND OF TOPIC

12 EXPRESSING CONTRAST S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S ALTHOUGH + A CONTRASING CIRCUMSTANCE, A N U N L I K E L Y O U T C O M E DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E Although the police did their best, Gaga and Beyonce got away with murder. CLICK WHEN READY EVEN THOUGH + A CONTRASING CIRCUMSTANCE A N U N L I K E L Y O U T C O M E DEPENDENT ADVERB CLAUSE M A I N C L A U S E Even though he had left behind no clue, the police tracked him down. Gaga and Beyonce got away with murder although the police did their best. CLICK WHEN READY The police tracked him down e ee even though he had left behind no clue., END OF TOPIC

13 EXPRESSING CONTRAST S E N T E N C E P A T T E R N S CLICK WHEN READY ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE EVEN THOUGH ALTHOUGHTHOUGH STATEMENT + He admitted the crime even though h e was innocent. He admitted the crime a lthough he was innocent. He admitted the crime t hough h e was innocent. IN SPITE OF DESPITE A NOUN + He admitted the crime i n spite of b eing innocent. He admitted the crime d espite b eing innocent. He admitted the crime i n spite of h is innocence. He admitted the crime d espite h is innocence.

14 CAUSE AND EFFECT S T A T E M E N T o r N O U N ? STATEMENT He is innocent CLICK WHEN READY He did nothing S Predicate N O U N His innocence His being innocent N O U N IN SPITE OF DESPITE CLICK WHEN READY EVEN THOUGH ALTHOUGHTHOUGH CLICK TO SEE WHERE EACH PHRASE GOES THE PREJUDICE HE FACED ? HE FACED STRONG PREJUDICE HE HAD A STRONG ALIBI HAVING A STRONG ALIBI BEING FINED MANY TIMES THE INCREASING CRIME RATE HE’S BEEN FINED MANY TIMES CRIME RATE IS INCREASING ITS POSSIBLE DANGER END OF TOPIC

15 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E He pleaded guilty, he didn’t want his wife to be imprisoned. FORAS PLEAD: PLEAD: To admit or deny being guilty at the court

16 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E He pleaded guilty he didn’t want his wife to be imprisoned. BECAUSESINCE

17 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E Her cheeks didn’t flush her impertinence. IN SPITE OF DESPITE FLUSH: FLUSH: To go red because of embarrassment

18 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She knew cheating her way through life would bring her nothing but trouble., she didn’t change her ways. HOWEVERNONETHELESSNEVERTHELESS

19 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She knew cheating her way through life would bring her nothing but trouble, she didn’t change her ways. BUTYET

20 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E Trisha had to stay after school for suspension she had neglected her schoolwork. BECAUSESINCE

21 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E Trisha had to stay after school for suspension, she had neglected her schoolwork. FORAS

22 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E Trisha had to stay after school for suspension her negligence of schoolwork. BECAUSE OF NEGLIGENCE: NEGLIGENCE: The act of not doing your duties

23 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E There is a decrease in suspension cases the general improvement in student behaviour. ON ACCOUNT OF BECAUSE OF OWING TO DUE TO

24 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E He knew he was guilty, he averted his eyes while speaking. SO AVERT: AVERT: To look away

25 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E He knew he was guilty., he averted his eyes while speaking. THEREFORECONSEQUENTLY AVERT: AVERT: To look away

26 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E The case dropped lack of evidence. ON ACCOUNT OF BECAUSE OF OWING TO DUE TO

27 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E The case dropped there wasn’t enough evidence. BECAUSESINCE

28 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E The case dropped, there was lack of evidence. FORAS

29 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She was heading for disaster, she wasn’t aware of anything the slightest. BUTYET

30 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She was heading for disaster., she wasn’t aware of anything the slightest. HOWEVERNONETHELESSNEVERTHELESS

31 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E she was heading for disaster, she wasn’t aware of anything the slightest. EVEN THOUGH ALTHOUGHTHOUGH

32 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E All the evidence pointed Cybil., she was wanted for murder. THEREFORECONSEQUENTLY

33 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E all the evidence pointed Cybil, she was wanted for murder. BECAUSESINCEAS

34 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E All the evidence pointed Cybil, she was wanted for murder. SO

35 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She didn’t blush even a little the embarrassment she had caused. IN SPITE OF DESPITE BLUSH: BLUSH: To go red because of embarrassment

36 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E she had caused some embarrassment, she didn’t blush even a tinge. EVEN THOUGH ALTHOUGHTHOUGH TINGE: TINGE: A very small amount of colour

37 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E She had caused a big embarrassment., she didn’t blush a bit. HOWEVERNONETHELESSNEVERTHELESS

38 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFECT WITH ADJECTIVES SO THAT HIGH BITTER STRONG DANGEROUS DELINQUENT CLICK WHEN READY S V O ADJECTIVE CLICK WHEN READY CAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSE E F F E C T CLICK TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES dangerous CAUSECAUSECAUSEE F F E C T The robbers looked so t hat everyone was scared. strong The evidence was so hat he was imprisoned. Crime rate has become s ss so hat everyone is at risk. high bitter delinquent The punishment was so hat he won’t do it again. The teenager was so hat he was expelled.

39 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFECT WITH ADVERBS SO THAT EARLY ABRUPTLY STRONGLY BEAUTIFULLY THREATENINGLY CLICK WHEN READY S V O ADVERB CLICK WHEN READY CAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSE E F F E C T CLICK TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES strongly CAUSECAUSECAUSEE F F E C T He pulled s o t hat the rope snapped. beautifully She smiled s o t hat he forgot his anger. He spoke s o t hat I thought my end had come. threateningly abruptly early The bus stopped s ss so hat we were thrown forward. I woke up s o t hat it was still dark.

40 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFECT WITH MODIFIED NOUNS SUCH THAT A LONG DAY RICH PEOPLE BORING PEOPLE A DIFFICULT JOB A GRIPPING BOOK CLICK WHEN READY S V O ADJECTIVE + NOUN CLICK WHEN READY CAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSECAUSE E F F E C T CLICK TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES a difficult job C A U S EC A U S EC A U S EC A U S EE F F E C T It was s uch t hat he resigned. boring people They are s uch t hat they make you yawn. It was s uch t hat I felt night would not come. a long day a gripping book rich people It was s uch t hat I read it at one sitting. They are s uch t hat they can buy everything.

41 1ST OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES, WHEREAS + 2ND OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES CONTRASTING VARIABLES INDEPENDENT CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE Crime rate is high in big cities, w ww whereas small towns are peaceful. CLICK WHEN READY He is a law abiding citizen, w ww while his brother leads a crooked life. 1ST OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES, WHILE + 2ND OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES CONTRASTING VARIABLES INDEPENDENT CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE 1ST OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES. ON THE OTHER HAND, + 2ND OF THE TWO CONTRASTING VARIABLES CONTRASTING VARIABLES INDEPENDENT CLAUSE He is a compulsive shoplifter. O OO On the other hand, his wife is a store detective. CLICK WHEN READY P A R A L L E L C O N T R A S T Whereas crime rate is high in big cities, small towns are peaceful. While he is a law abiding citizen, his brother leads a crooked life. He is a compulsive shoplifter. His wife, o oo on the other hand, is a store detective. END OF TOPIC

42 THE FIRST FEATURE. IN ADDITION, THE SECOND FEATURE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE The city is facing some transportation problems. Traffic is getting even heavier. I II In addition, roads need urgent repair. CLICK WHEN READY Exhaust fume induced global warming has some grave consequences. It is melting the ice caps. F FF Furthermore, it is causing disasters in many countries. THE FIRST FEATURE. FURTHERMORE, THE SECOND FEATURE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE THE FIRST FEATURE. MOREOVER, THE SECOND FEATURE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Jason has skeletons in the cupboard. Did you know that he used to be a drug abuser? M MM Moreover, he was sentenced for illegal trafficking of drugs. CLICK WHEN READY M A K I N G A D D I T I O N S M A K I N G A D D I T I O N S END OF TOPIC

43 CLICK WHEN READY ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE FURTHERNORE, IN ADDITION, MOREOVER, STATEMENT + He eats a lot. F urthermore, h e never exercises. She doesn’t study. I n addition, s she plays truant. He quit his job. Moreover, h e moved to another house. IN ADDITION TO BESIDES A NOUN + In addition to e ating a lot, he never exercises. Besides n ot studying, she plays truant. In addition to q uitting his job, he moved to another house. Besides r esigning from his job, he changed his address. M A K I N G A D D I T I O N S M A K I N G A D D I T I O N S

44 M A K I N G A D D I T I O N S STATEMENT He changed his address CLICK WHEN READY He doesn’t take exercise S Predicate N O U N Changing his adress Not taking exercise N O U N IN ADDITION TO BESIDES CLICK WHEN READY FURTHERMORE, IN ADDITION, MOREOVER, CLICK TO SEE WHERE EACH PHRASE GOES THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW LAWS ? NEW LAWS WILL BE INTRODUCED THE PROHIBITION OF MARIJUANA PROHIBITING THE MARIJUANA MARIJUANA WAS PROHIBITEDALL THE ACCUSATIONS HE WAS SUBJECT TO SEVERE ACCUSATIONS HE ARSONED HIS FACTORY ARSONING HIS OWN FACTORY END OF TOPIC

45 SO AS TO IN ORDER TO E X P R E S S I N G P U R P O S E SO AS TO IN ORDER TO CLICK WHEN READY S V O … V V (BASE) CLICK WHEN READY M A I N C L A U S EP U R P O S E They are still searching find some evidence. She wore a false disguise avoid the paparazzi. SO THAT IN ORDER THAT SO THAT IN ORDER THAT CLICK WHEN READY S V O … WILL WOULD CAN-COULD MAY-MIGHT ETC. CLICK WHEN READY M A I N C L A U S EP U R P O S E They are still searching they w ww will find some evidence. She wore a false disguise she w ww would hide from them. ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE

46 Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He wore gloves, as he didn’t want to leave his fingerprints. not leave his fingerprints. He wore gloves SO so that he would There was too little evidence, so the case dropped. There was SO so little evidence that She wore a man’s disguise to slink unnoticed. She wore a man’s disguise THAT in order that she would As there was no one looking, he slipped the camera in his pocket. Nobody was looking, SO so he slipped the camera When he was a boy, he was so delinquent that everyone avoided him. He was THAT such a delinquent boy that in his pocket. people avoided him. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION PURPOSE vs. CAUSE & EFFECT the case dropped. slink unnoticed. ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE

47 The crime rate in the city is too high to feel safe. crime rate that you feel unsafe. The city HAS has such a high The vandals did everything at night, as they didn’t want to be seen. The vandals chose the night SO so that they wouldn’t The police rendered him harmless by handcuffs. The police handcuffed him SO so as to render him The evidence against him was very strong, and he had no chance. The evidence against him SO was so strong that His character made it hard for me to believe he was a thief. He THAT had such a good character that he stood no chance. I couldn’t believe he was a thief. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION PURPOSE vs. CAUSE & EFFECT be seen. harmless. ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE

48 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment is practised in the USA, it has long been abolished in the EU. WHILEWHEREAS ABOLISH: ABOLISH: To officially end a law

49 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment is practised in the USA., it is supported by the majority of Americans. FURTHERMORE IN ADDITION MOREOVER

50 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment is practised in the USA deter people from committing felony. IN ORDER TO SO AS TO FELONY: FELONY: A serious crime DETER: DETER: To scare and stop someone from doing something

51 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E abolishing capital punishment, the EU is pressurizing some non member states to do the same. IN ADDITION TO BESIDES ABOLISH: ABOLISH: To officially end a law The EU: The EU: The European Union

52 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment is practised in the USA people will be deterred from committing serious offences. IN ORDER THAT SO THAT

53 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment is important for most Americans that policies upon it have to be weighed very carefully. SO

54 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Capital punishment has an important role in combating crime that it saves hundreds of innocent people every year with its deterrent power. SUCH DETERRENT: DETERRENT: Having the characteristic to prevent people from doing something

55 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Frank defrauded the company of a million dollars., he disappeared into thin air. THEREFORECONSEQUENTLY

56 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Frank has disappeared into thin air, he is wanted for defrauding the company of a million dollars. ASFOR

57 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Frank has disappeared into thin air the police will not find him. SO THAT IN ORDER THAT

58 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Frank has disappeared into thin air, the police are questioning all his acquaintances to find a clue about where he could have gone. SO ACQUAINTANCE: ACQUAINTANCE: Somebody you know, but who is not a good friend

59 C A U S E A N D E F F E C T + C O N T R A S T P R A C T I C E defrauding the company of a million dollars, he took with him all secret files. IN ADDITION TO BESIDES

60 CAUSE AND EFFECT + PARALLEL CONTRAST + ADDITION + PURPOSE P R A C T I C E Frank disappeared into thin air., he took with him all secret files. FURTHERMORE IN ADDITION MOREOVER


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