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REPORTED SPEECH PRONOUN CHANGES YES/NO QUESTIONS TENSE CHANGES

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Presentation on theme: "REPORTED SPEECH PRONOUN CHANGES YES/NO QUESTIONS TENSE CHANGES"— Presentation transcript:

1 REPORTED SPEECH PRONOUN CHANGES YES/NO QUESTIONS TENSE CHANGES
REQUESTS & ORDERS CHANGES IN PLACE REFERENCE EXERCISE CHANGES IN TIME REFERENCE REPORTING VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND WH- & HOW QUESTIONS REPORTING VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE

2 PRONOUN CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
Pronouns change if there is a shift in the reference point. R E F E R E N C E P O I N T R E F E R E N C E P O I N T T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R A VISITING TOURIST AN INHABITANT OF THE VISITED COUNTRY I have seen many countries, but your country is the best. He says he has seen many countries but our country is the best. REFERENCES MADE REFERENCES MADE THE SPEAKER HIMSELF I THE SPEAKER HE OUR COUNTRY YOUR COUNTRY OUR COUNTRY OUR COUNTRY ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

3 PRONOUN CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
R E F E R E N C E P O I N T R E F E R E N C E P O I N T T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R AN INTERROGATING POLICE INSPECTOR THE INTERROGATED SUSPECT I think you have something that you hide, and I will find it. She says she thinks I have something that I hide and she will find it. REFERENCES MADE REFERENCES MADE THE INSPECTOR I THE INSPECTOR SHE THE SUSPECT YOU THE SUSPECT I THE SECRET IT THE SECRET IT ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK FOR MORE EXAMPLES CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

4 PRONOUN CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
R E F E R E N C E P O I N T R E F E R E N C E P O I N T T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R A MOTHER WHO WANTS TO HELP THE DAUGHTER IN NEED OF HELP I am here to help you because your worries are my unhappiness. She says she is here to help me because my worries are her unhappiness. REFERENCES MADE REFERENCES MADE THE MOTHER I THE MOTHER SHE HELP FOR THE DAUGHTER HELP YOU HELP FOR THE DAUGHTER HELP ME THE DAUGHTER’S WORRIES YOUR WORRIES THE DAUGHTER’S WORRIES MY WORRIES THE MOTHER’S UNHAPPINESS MY UNHAPPINESS THE MOTHER’S UNHAPPINESS HER UNHAPPINESS CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC CLICK FOR MORE EXAMPLES

5 SHE SAID (THAT) ... TENSE CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
WILL GO > WOULD GO GO > WENT WENT > HAD GONE HAS GONE > HAD GONE IS GOING > WAS GOING WAS GOING > HAD BEEN GOING The tense moves by one degree back in time if the reporting verb is in the past tense. T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R SHE SAID (THAT) ... “I AM GOING” SHE WAS GOING “I WAS GOING” SHE HAD BEEN GOING “I HAVE BEEN GOING” SHE HAD BEEN GOING “I GO” SHE WENT “I WENT” SHE HAD GONE “I HAVE GONE” SHE HAD GONE “I HAD GONE” SHE HAD GONE “I WILL GO” SHE WOULD GO ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK WHEN READY

6 TENSE CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
WILL GO > WOULD GO GO > WENT WENT > HAD GONE HAS GONE > HAD GONE IS GOING > WAS GOING WAS GOING > HAD BEEN GOING T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R A VISITING TOURIST AN INHABITANT OF THE VISITED COUNTRY I have seen many countries, but your country is the best. He said he had seen many countries but our country was the best. THE SHIFT OF THE TENSE BY ONE DEGREE BACK IN TIME THE TENSE OF THE DIRECT SPEECH HAVE SEEN HAVE SEEN HAD SEEN IS IS WAS ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

7 TENSE CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
WILL GO > WOULD GO GO > WENT WENT > HAD GONE HAS GONE > HAD GONE IS GOING > WAS GOING WAS GOING > HAD BEEN GOING T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R A FATHER WHO IS DISAPPOINTED WITH WHAT HIS SON IS DOING THE SON You are wasting your time playing that foolish guitar. He said I was wasting my time playing this foolish guitar. THE SHIFT OF THE TENSE BY ONE DEGREE BACK IN TIME THE TENSE OF THE DIRECT SPEECH AM WASTING WAS WASTING ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK FOR MORE EXAMPLES CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

8 TENSE CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO INDIRECT
WILL GO > WOULD GO GO > WENT WENT > HAD GONE HAS GONE > HAD GONE IS GOING > WAS GOING WAS GOING > HAD BEEN GOING T H E S P E A K E R T H E R E P O R T E R THE SON WHO GAVE SOME GOOD NEWS A DAY AGO THE MOTHER WHO RECEIVED THE GOOD NEWS ON THE PHONE I am going to Boston because I have been admitted to Harvard. He said he was going to Boston because he had been admitted to Boston. THE SHIFT OF THE TENSE BY ONE DEGREE BACK IN TIME THE TENSE OF THE DIRECT SPEECH AM GOING WAS GOING HAVE BEEN ADMITTED HAD BEEN ADMITTED CLICK FOR MORE EXAMPLES CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

9 C H A N G E S I N P L A C E R E F E R E N C E
THE SPEAKER THE REPORTER THE POSITION OF THE REPORTER HERE “HERE” AT THE REFERRED PLACE “HERE” THERE NOT AT THE REFERRED PLACE HERE “THERE” AT THE REFERRED PLACE “THERE” THERE NOT AT THE REFERRED PLACE ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

10 C H A N G E S I N P L A C E R E F E R E N C E
BOTH AT A RESTAURANT THE SPEAKER THE REPORTER TO THE REPORTER TO THE WAITER “MY GIRLFRIEND IS BORED HERE. COULD YOU POSSIBLY CHANGE THE MUSIC, SIR?” “I AM BORED HERE. COULD THEY CHANGE THE MUSIC?” ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY

11 C H A N G E S I N P L A C E R E F E R E N C E
AT THE REPAIR SHOP AT HOME THE SPEAKER THE REPORTER TO THE REPORTER TO HIS WIFE “YOU CAN’T BRING YOUR CAR HERE UNTIL FRIDAY. WE HAVE A LOT OF WORK.” “THE MECHANIC SAID WE COULDN’T TAKE THE CAR THERE UNTIL FRIDAY BECAUSE THEY HAD A LOT OF WORK” CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

12 C H A N G E S I N P L A C E R E F E R E N C E
THE SPEAKER THE REPORTER THE TIME OF THE REPORT NOW “NOW” AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING “NOW” THEN NOT AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING “AT THE MOMENT” AT THE MOMENT AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING “AT THE MOMENT” AT THAT MOMENT NOT AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING YESTERDAY “YESTERDAY” ON THE SAME DAY “YESTERDAY” THE DAY BEFORE THE PREVIOUS DAY NOT ON THE SAME DAY TOMORROW “TOMORROW” ON THE SAME DAY “TOMORROW” THE FOLLOWING DAY THE NEXT DAY NOT ON THE SAME DAY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

13 STATEMENT. ASKED QUESTION STATEMENT REPORTING WH- & HOW - QUESTIONS
YOU HE SHE IT WE THEY WHO WHAT WHEN WHERE WHY HOW HOW OFTEN HOW MANY HOW MUCH ASKED STATEMENT. QUESTION STATEMENT WHERE…? WHAT…? WHY…? WHEN…? HOW MUCH…? HE ASKED WHERE… . HE ASKED WHAT… . HE ASKED WHEN… . HE ASKED WHY… . HE ASKED HOW MUCH… . WHERE DID YOU GO? He asked where you HAD GONE WAS SHE HERE WAS HE DOING SHE HAD BEEN HERE DID YOU GO HE HAD BEEN DOING WHY WAS SHE HERE? YOU HAD GONE HE HAD GONE HE asked why she HAD BEEN here DID YOU HAVE DID HE GO WHAT WAS HE DOING? YOU HAD HAD He asked what he HAD BEEN DOING WHEN DID HE GO? He asked when he HAD GONE HOW MUCH DID YOU HAVE? He asked how much you HAD HAD CLICK TO SEE WHERE EACH PHRASE GOES CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

14 STATEMENT. ASKED QUESTION STATEMENT REPORTING YES / NO QUESTIONS
YOU HE SHE IT WE THEY IF WHETHER ASKED STATEMENT. QUESTION STATEMENT HE ASKED … . IF WHETHER WILL YOU COME? HE ASKED IF YOU WOULD COME. HAD SHE SEEN IT ARE YOU KIDDING SHE HAD SEEN IT YOU WERE KIDDING DOES SHE BELIEVE IT YOU WOULD COME HE HAD TRIED SHE BELIEVED IT WILL YOU COME DID HE TRY ARE YOU KIDDING? HE ASKED IF YOU WERE KIDDING. HAD SHE SEEN IT? HE ASKED IF SHE HAD SEEN IT. DID HE TRY? HE ASKED IF HE HAD TRIED. DOES SHE BELIEVE IT? HE ASKED IF SHE BELIEVED IT. CLICK TO SEE WHERE EACH PHRASE GOES CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

15 TO… . NOT TO… . ADVISED ASKED BEGGED ORDERED REQUESTED TOLD
REPORTING REQUESTS & ORDERS I YOU HE SHE IT WE THEY ME YOU HIM HER IT US THEM ADVISED TO… . ASKED BEGGED ORDERED NOT TO… . REQUESTED TOLD THE SPEAKER THE REPORTER ADVISING JOHN BEGGING LISA ORDERING BOB ASKING sth. FROM DAN REQUESTING sth FROM MEG REPORTING THE ADVICE REPORTING THE PLEA REPORTING THE APPEAL REPORTING THE ORDER REPORTING THE REQUEST YOU SHOULD KEEP YOUR ROOM CLEAN HE ADVISED JOHN TO KEEP HIS ROOM CLEAN WANTS THE MUSIC MORE SILENT CLEAN MY CAR NOW! DOESN’T WANT TO BE LET DOWN WANTS HIS CAR CLEAN HE ORDERED BOB TO CLEAN HIS CAR NOW WANTS JOHN’S ROOM CLEAN DON’T LET ME DOWN DOESN’T WANT TO BE LEFT HE ASKED DAN NOT TO LET HIM DOWN COULD YOU PLEASE TURN IT DOWN? HE REQUESTED MEG TO TURN IT DOWN PLEASE DON’T LEAVE ME! HE BEGGED LISA NOT TO LEAVE HIM GUESS WHAT THE SPEAKER AND THE REPORTER WILL SAY CLICK WHEN READY CLICK WHEN READY END OF TOPIC

16 SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
REPORTED SPEECH Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. “Where have you seen it?” asked Laura to me. HAD Laura asked where I had seen it. “Could you please bring your laptop?” asked Jim to Frank. BRING Jim requested Frank to bring his laptop. “We were playing truant when we got lost,” said the boys. TRUANT The boys said they had been playing truant when they got lost. “You did a good job here yesterday,” said the teacher as I left. THE As I left, the teacher said I had done a good job there the day before. “Are you going to arrive early?” asked the boss. TO The boss asked if I was going to arrive early. ADVANCE TO THE NEXT SLIDE

17 On the phone, dad asked me
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION REPORTED SPEECH “I would rather you didn’t smoke here,” said the man to me. TOLD The man told me not to smoke there. “How much did you pay for the ticket?” asked Casey. PAID Casey asked how much I had paid for the ticket. “We still haven’t finalised our decision yet,” said the jury. COME The jury said they hadn’t come to a conclusion yet. “Are you having fun there? asked dad on the phone. FUN On the phone, dad asked me if I was having fun here. “How much more will I wait?” asked Rob to me. MORE Rob asked me how much more he would wait. END OF THE EXERCISE

18 REPORTING VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND
ADMIT BLAME ☻ FOR MENTION ACCUSE ☻ OF COMPLAIN ABOUT REGRET APOLOGISE TO ☻ FOR DENY SUGGEST

19 TO STATE UNWILLINGLY THAT YOU HAVE DONE SOMETHING OR SOMETHING IS TRUE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST ADMIT DOING TO STATE UNWILLINGLY THAT YOU HAVE DONE SOMETHING OR SOMETHING IS TRUE It was clear that her parents wouldn’t believe her for the second time, so little Jenny had to admit breaking the vase. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He is cross with us, but he won’t say that this is true. ANGRY He won’t ADMIT BEING ANGRY with us. “Ok, it was me who spread this awful rumour,” said Neil. Neil ADMITTED SPREADING THAT awful rumour. ADMITTED

20 TO SAY YOU BELIEVE SB. IS GUILTY OF DOING STH. BAD
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST ACCUSE ☻OF DOING STH TO SAY YOU BELIEVE SB. IS GUILTY OF DOING STH. BAD To everyone’s surprise, Brendan is accused of giving away some secret information of the company. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Nancy is claimed to be evading taxes. OF Nancy is ACCUSED OF EVADING taxes. Tom is believed to have destroyed the evidence on purpose. OF They ACCUSE TOM OF DELIBERATELY DESTROYING the evidence.

21 VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND
GERUND LIST APOLOGISE TO☻FOR DOING STH TO SAY YOU ARE SORRY FOR A MISTAKE YOU HAVE MADE This is neither the first nor the last time she has apologised to us for neglecting her work. She needs a very serious warning. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. “I shouldn’t have treated you like that, Tom,” said Lisa. Lisa him that way. TO APOLOGISED TO TOM FOR TREATING “I am sorry for my late arrival, Bob,” said Gwen. Gwen late. APOLOGISED TO BOB FOR ARRIVING ARRIVING

22 TO SAY YOU BELIEVE SB. IS GUILTY OFDOING STH. BAD
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST BLAME ☻FOR DOING STH TO SAY YOU BELIEVE SB. IS GUILTY OFDOING STH. BAD Given all the bad experience she went through her marriage, no one should blame Charlotte for leaving him without any notice. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. We cannot hold Diana responsible for his resignation. CAUSING We cannot BLAME DIANA FOR CAUSING HIM to resign. Someone arsoned the building, but Clive should not be the subject of this accusation. SETTING We cannot BLAME CLIVE FOR SETTING FIRE to the building.

23 TO SAY YOU ARE UNHAPPY ABOUT SOMETHING
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST COMPLAIN ABOUT DOING STH TO SAY YOU ARE UNHAPPY ABOUT SOMETHING Stop complaining about having to get up at the crack of dawn. Do you want to go hunting or not? Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. They brought their unhappiness about early working hours to our notice. ABOUT They COMPLAINED ABOUT COMING TO WORK so early. The complaint of the workers was about the poor payment. The workers COMPLAINED ABOUT NOT EARNING enough. ABOUT

24 TO REFUSE TO ACCEPT SOMETHING IS TRUE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST DENY DOING TO REFUSE TO ACCEPT SOMETHING IS TRUE Lying is Hannah’s expertise, so she denied seeing Tom at the party. Yet, we believe that she really did. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Meg said she didn’t love him, but her eyes spoke the truth. BEING Though Meg , her eyes didn’t. DENIED BEING IN LOVE Jack says it wasn’t him who started the gossip. DENIES Jack DENIES STARTING THE GOSSIP.

25 MENTION VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND
GERUND LIST MENTION DOING TO BRIEFLY REFER TO SOMETHING WHEN SPEAKING OR WRITING Jason mentioned doing something for a change in the office. Do you remember what it was? Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He briefly referred to having to come to the office very early. He MENTIONED HAVING TO come to the office very early. HAVING

26 TO FEEL UNHAPPY ABOUT HAVING MADE A PARTICULAR MISTAKE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST REGRET BE SORRY FOR DOING TO FEEL UNHAPPY ABOUT HAVING MADE A PARTICULAR MISTAKE I regret not going to the party. They say it was awesome. When she realised the mistake she had made, Julia was sorry for parting with Roy. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. I wish I hadn’t said those bitter words. I REGRET SPEAKING SO bitterly. OR → AM SORRY FOR SPEAKING SO SO I really shouldn’t have lent him so much money. I lot of money. A REGRET LENDING HIM SUCH A

27 TO TELL SOMEONE ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND GERUND LIST SUGGEST DOING TO TELL SOMEONE ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONE I suggest eating out today as I have no energy left for cooking. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. How about eating at a Thai restaurant tonight? I SUGGEST DINING AT A Thai restaurant. DINING I think we should leave her alone for the time being. LETTING I SUGGEST LETTING HER be alone for some time. END OF TOPIC

28 REPORTING VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE
AGREE OFFER REFUSE CLAIM PROMISE THREATEN to do IF V2

29 TO STATE THAT YOU WILL DO WHAT SOMEONE SUGGESTS
VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE INFINITIVE LIST AGREE TO DO TO STATE THAT YOU WILL DO WHAT SOMEONE SUGGESTS He swore that it would be fun and we all agreed to go to the theme park. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. If she doesn’t like it, she will never decide to come with us. Unless she likes it, she won’t AGREE TO COME with us. COME “Alright,” she said, “I will tell you the secret.” She the secret. TELL AGREED TO TELL US

30 CLAIM CLAIM VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE
INFINITIVE LIST CLAIM TO DO TO STATE THAT SOMETHING IS TRUE NOW CLAIM TO HAVE DONE TO STATE THAT SOMETHING WAS TRUE IN THE PAST The boy claims to run faster than Usain Bolt. The boy claims to have seen a ghost. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Brad says that he has seen my girlfriend with Tom. CLAIMS Brad CLAIMS TO HAVE SEEN my girlfriend with Tom. Brad says he knows a terrible secret about the boss. CLAIMS Brad CLAIMS TO KNOW a terrible secret about the boss.

31 TO SAY YOU HAVE SOMETHING TO GIVE THAT PEOPLE MIGHT NEED
VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE INFINITIVE LIST OFFER TO DO TO SAY YOU HAVE SOMETHING TO GIVE THAT PEOPLE MIGHT NEED Because Tom’s car will be at the mechanic’s next week, I offered to drive him to his office. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. He told her, “I can help you to organize the tournament.” He OFFERED TO HELP HER organize the tournament. HELP We told the old man we would be happy to carry his luggage if he liked. THE We offered TO CARRY THE OLD MAN’S luggage.

32 TO TELL SOMEONE THAT YOU WILL DEFINITELY DO SOMETHING
VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE INFINITIVE LIST PROMISE TO DO TO TELL SOMEONE THAT YOU WILL DEFINITELY DO SOMETHING After having a terrible row with her parents, Linda promised not to come back home again. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. Gill swore that Andy wouldn’t get away with that. Gill PROMISED TO TAKE HER REVENGE on Andy. REVENGE “I will definitely not do anything crooked again,” said Nick. Nick bad again. NOT PROMISED NOT TO DO ANYTHING

33 TO SAY THAT YOU WILL DEFINITELY NOT DO SOMETHING
VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE INFINITIVE LIST REFUSE TO DO TO SAY THAT YOU WILL DEFINITELY NOT DO SOMETHING When the publisher requested a different ending to the story, I refused to change the storyline. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. They couldn’t force us to remain silent during the negotiations. We REFUSED TO BE silent during the negotiations. BE “I am sorry, but I can’t go to the party with you,” said Carol to Seth. GO Carol REFUSED TO GO TO THE PARTY with Seth.

34 TO SAY THAT YOU WILL CAUSE SOME HARM IF SOMETHING ISN’T DONE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE INFINITIVE LIST THREATEN TO DO IF V2 TO SAY THAT YOU WILL CAUSE SOME HARM IF SOMETHING ISN’T DONE She threatened never to see her family again if her father didn’t consent to her marriage. Click for a sentence transformation exercise. Use the key word that appears on the right to complete the sentence with a maximum of 4 other words. The robber said he would fire the gun if we didn’t collaborate. The robber TO THREATENED TO FIRE IF WE didn’t collaborate. She wanted me to stay. Otherwise, she would kill me. LEFT She threatened to KILL ME IF I LEFT. END OF TOPIC


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