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Sangita Kulathinal, University of Helsinki & INSEED organization and Minna Säävälä, Väestöliitto The global spread of the two child norm: Examples from.

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Presentation on theme: "Sangita Kulathinal, University of Helsinki & INSEED organization and Minna Säävälä, Väestöliitto The global spread of the two child norm: Examples from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sangita Kulathinal, University of Helsinki & INSEED organization and Minna Säävälä, Väestöliitto The global spread of the two child norm: Examples from India Launching seminar ’Precarious family formation’, Väestöliitto, Helsinki 19th April 2012

2 The two ’billionaires’ India population 1.2 billion (2011 Census) China population 1.3 billion o  36 % of the world’s population lives in China and India o India expected to pass China’s population by 2025 Most populous state Uttar Pradesh: 200 million people, more than in Brazil Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 2

3 Population projections: India till 2065 Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, ’000

4 Indian population scenario Total Fertility Rate 2.6 children per woman (est. 2011) Wide regional differences: o Northern ’Hindi belt’: still high fertility of 3-4 children o Southern and Western states: mostly replacement level fertility or below 2.1 children Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 4

5 Two-child norm in India Long history of national population policies Slogan ’Small family is a happy family’ The key is social development, not indoctrination in a democratic country Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 5

6 Two child norm has been adopted o in most urban areas, o in large parts of the rural areas in the country o in all socio-economic groups in South and West Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 6

7 Small family, happy family

8 We two, ours two

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10 If girl child is brutely killed then where will you get brides from?

11 Unintended consequence of the two child norm Fertility decline in starkly patriarchal societies: o A son has to be secured Gender imbalance in 0-6 year-olds growing Situation not as grave as in China, a later phenomenon Will affect marriage market But: will India follow the path of China? Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 11

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13 Child sex ratio worsened continuously India Maharashtra Source: Census of India n.b. Girls to 1000 boys aged 0 to 6

14 Sub-study in India Survey data and qualitative interviews in two slums in Nashik, Maharashtra, Western India Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 14 Mumbai Nashik

15 We ask in our study Is the two child norm going to lead to spread of one child norm, like in China? What are slum youth thinking of the future and what are their family formation intentions? Are people aware of the emerging future problem of finding brides? Is marriage age and system of spouse selection changing? Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 15

16 India is moving towards “We two, ours one”

17 Thank you for your attention! Esittäjä, yksikkö, pvmVÄESTÖLIITTO Etunimi Sukunimi 17


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