Presentation on theme: "BR and Fertility Why do some area’s of the world have higher fertility rates? BABY O MATIC How many will you have? Why do governments care about fertility?"— Presentation transcript:
BR and Fertility Why do some area’s of the world have higher fertility rates? BABY O MATIC How many will you have? Why do governments care about fertility? What can be done to control fertility?
What is Fertility? The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography states that Fertility is a terms which refers in general context to all aspects of human reproduction leading to live births, but in a narrow sense to the achieved number of live births.
Global Trends The United Nations is a key observer in global population trends and it has a few agencies that monitor different aspects of the population. The main agency is the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Fertility Rate is the number of children born to women of child-bearing age.
Birth Rates, Total Fertility Rates and Replacement Rates Crude Birth Rate is the number of babies born per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifetime, based on the current birth rates. The present world average is 3.1. The TFR is one of the best indicators of population growth. In 1998 the UN stated that 2.1 was the TFR needed by a country to replace its population. The Replacement Rate is when there are just enough children born to balance the number of people who die.
What are the fertility issues? Fact – Many countries have too many people Fact – Some countries have too few people Fact – Some countries have ethnic, social, cultural, economic, political, environmental problems
What are the factors that influence Fertility? Biological factors Marriage Patterns Patterns of sexual activity Length of Breastfeeding Induced Abortion Sterility Use of contraception
Higher levels of family planning use are associated with lower levels of childbearing. In Africa, where a small proportion of married women of childbearing age practice family planning (26 percent), on average women have more than five children each. In contrast, in more developed regions, where a much greater percentage of married women of childbearing age practice family planning (68 percent), women have fewer children (under two on average).
Diverging Trends in Fertility Reduction Average number of children per woman
Life Expectancy at Birth, in Years
What are the factors that influence Fertility? Socio-economic factors The value and welfare of children The value and status of women
What are the factors that influence Fertility? Institutional Policies Government policy Religion
An example of how high levels of fertility affect a country. Gambia, West Africa. Make comprehensive notes on this case study. Before we watch, set out one or more pieces of paper with the following questions as headings. Why has Gambia got a largely Youthful population? CAUSES- SOCIAL – ECONOMIC - CULTURAL What problems is this growth causing? What small scale projects are taking place in the Gambia? SOLUTIONS - Explain what they involve. How are they improving the situation?
Mortality – Death Rates What causes mortality rates to vary across the world? Read through page 7 – 9. Answer the questions on p7, 8 and 9.
Infant and child mortality Why are the deaths of infants and children a more important measure of development than adult mortality? In 250 words Explain why countries in sub- saharan Africa have higher death rates and lower life expectancies compared with Europe.