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Chapter 20 An Industrial Society, 1890-1920 Web. Sources of U.S. Economic Growth Development of new technology Electric Power Gasoline-powered internal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 An Industrial Society, 1890-1920 Web. Sources of U.S. Economic Growth Development of new technology Electric Power Gasoline-powered internal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 An Industrial Society, Web

2 Sources of U.S. Economic Growth Development of new technology Electric Power Gasoline-powered internal combustion engine Led to rise of related industries Rise of large corporations Made national markets possible Mass production and distribution To take advantage of national market possibilities Corporate Consolidation As edge against potentially ruinous competition

3 Sources of U.S. Economic Growth Sources of U.S. Economic Growth (cont.) Revolution in management Appearance of complicated corporate hierarchies Creation of new middle class Adoption of scientific techniques in business Scientific management Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Not always easy to apply new principles Led to greater employer concern for employees

4 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Industrial America,

5 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Change in Distribution of the American Workforce,

6 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Model T Prices and Sales,

7 Changing conceptions of “Robber Barons” Andrew Carnegie, “Gospel of Wealth” Rise of large-scale philanthropy among corporate kingpins

8 A new Obsession with Physical and Racial Fitness Pursuit of “the strenuous life” Liberating effect for American Women Emerging ideas about Anglo-Saxon superiority Solidification of racial stereotypes Popularity of Social Darwinism

9 New Immigration, million, mostly from Europe On surface, differed from “old immigrants” in significant and important ways In truth, more similar than different “New Immigrants” as laborers Often performed difficult, unskilled jobs Tended to cluster in professions by ethnicity Faced opposition from unions and “old immigrants” on the job Living conditions difficult and substandard Prompted reformist attention to improvements

10 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Sources of Immigration

11 Building Ethnic Communities Immigrants established their own, ethnically based aid networks Replicated “old Country” groups Established new groups to meet American situation Ethnic middle-class began to emerge Entrepreneurs in a variety of businesses and trades Ethnic groups tended to cluster according to profession Emergence of urban political machines and organized crime Borne of economic necessity Machines were both a positive and negative force id urban life Gangsters not numerous, but let their mark

12 African-American Labor and Community Most blacks still lived in rural areas in the South Some did migrate to the North, or to industrial areas of the South Often treated worse than “new immigrants” Discrimination occurred in North as well as South Disappearance of older, black middle-class in some cities Creation and solidification of local black institutions Churches, fraternal societies, political organizations Community building more difficult for blacks than for immigrants

13 Workers and Unions Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor Focused during 1890s on organizing craft or skilled workers Then worked to negotiate good contracts for them Backed away from political agitation Ignored most unskilled workers “Big Bill”” Haywood and the Industrial Workers of the World Hoped to organize workers into “one big union” Commitment to revolution

14 Entertainment in the Cities Numerous amusements for industrial workers Movies were most popular Affordable; short;required no English All kinds of content and subject matter

15 The New Sexuality and the New Woman Revolt against Victorianism and “separate spheres” Assault led by young people, especially women Calls for sexual equality First “feminist” movement Aroused anxiety among American conservatives Especially pronounced in rural areas Web


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