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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Progressive Era 22

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890s to WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM Progressivism reflects the worry in Society about the effects of Industrialization and urbanization National but not a unified group

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Muckrakers Call for Reform McClure’s Magazine “Muckrakers” write to expose corruption at all levels on every subject Muckrakers are Journalistic voice of Progressive Age – need to reform Ida Tarbell well-known muckraker Lincoln Steffens research on corruption in city governments

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890S TO WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM Progressivism reflects the worry in Society About the Effects of Industrialization and Urbanization National but not a unified group

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Innovative Model T Henry Ford set standards for mass production with his auto industry Small profit on each unit, gross of huge profit on high volume of sales 1908: Model T introduced “Tin Lizzie” was motor car for everyone 1916: Federal government began highway subsidies

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Burgeoning Trusts Big business resulted in a growing number of trusts Series of mergers and consolidations in industry – small guy is gone 1% of industry produced half of all manufactured good Finance men (J.P. Morgan) replace industrial capitalists Question: What should government do about trusts?

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Managing the Machines Mass production changed direction of American industry Business became large scale and mechanized and managed Replacement of industrial giants by financial giants Workplace is boring and dangerous because workers must work fast

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Better Times on the Farm 1920 – 1/3 of people still on farms Isolation reduced by (RFD) mail and parcel post deliveries to farms Tenant farmers remained impoverished Western farmers benefited from vast irrigation projects

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force 1901–1920: Fresh influx of Europeans, Mexicans, Asians to labor force Non-English speakers considered a social problem Programs to “Americanize” them

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force Huge numbers of immigrants enter country to join labor force Birds of passage – temporary migrant Chinese immigration banned in 1902 Literacy tests used against other immigrant groups

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920 (by Area of Origin)

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Mexican Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Conflict in the Workplace Industrial works found their work repetitive and boring Safety is big issue especially for woman and children The Triangle Fire – forced state and national attention Low wages combined with demands for increased productivity led to increase in labor unrest in early 1900s Union membership soared

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Organizing Labor American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers, was the largest union (no unskilled or women) from 250,000 to 1.7 million in : Women excluded from A.F.L. form Women’s Trade Union League – few members l 1905: Industrial Workers of the World purpose to overthrow capitalism – William D. (Big Bill) Haywood Unions try to negotiate and then use strikes

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Labor Union Membership, 1897–1920

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Working with Workers Some employers use violence to keep workers in line Some employers improve working conditions to avoid trouble Henry Ford doubled wages, reduced workday Amoskeag – textile mill in New Hampshire

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands A New Urban Culture Growing middle class Nation of consumers – mass production provided jobs and products that workers could afford (lowered prices) Death rate dropped – life span increased Cities grew and took on modern look – sky scrapers – department stores, warehouses – wealthy suburbs – zoning, etc.


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