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22 The Progressive Era.

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Presentation on theme: "22 The Progressive Era."— Presentation transcript:

1 22 The Progressive Era

2 PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890s to WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM
Progressivism reflects the worry in Society about the effects of Industrialization and urbanization National but not a unified group

3 Muckrakers Call for Reform
McClure’s Magazine “Muckrakers” write to expose corruption at all levels on every subject Muckrakers are Journalistic voice of Progressive Age – need to reform Ida Tarbell well-known muckraker Lincoln Steffens research on corruption in city governments

4 PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890S TO WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM
Progressivism reflects the worry in Society About the Effects of Industrialization and Urbanization National but not a unified group

5 The Innovative Model T Henry Ford set standards for mass production with his auto industry Small profit on each unit, gross of huge profit on high volume of sales 1908: Model T introduced “Tin Lizzie” was motor car for everyone 1916: Federal government began highway subsidies

6 The Burgeoning Trusts Big business resulted in a growing number of trusts Series of mergers and consolidations in industry – small guy is gone 1% of industry produced half of all manufactured good Finance men (J.P. Morgan) replace industrial capitalists Question: What should government do about trusts?

7 Managing the Machines Mass production changed direction of American industry Business became large scale and mechanized and managed Replacement of industrial giants by financial giants Workplace is boring and dangerous because workers must work fast

8 Better Times on the Farm
1920 – 1/3 of people still on farms Isolation reduced by (RFD) mail and parcel post deliveries to farms Tenant farmers remained impoverished Western farmers benefited from vast irrigation projects

9 “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force
1901–1920: Fresh influx of Europeans, Mexicans, Asians to labor force Non-English speakers considered a social problem Programs to “Americanize” them

10 “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force
Huge numbers of immigrants enter country to join labor force Birds of passage – temporary migrant Chinese immigration banned in 1902 Literacy tests used against other immigrant groups

11 Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920 (by Area of Origin)

12 Mexican Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920

13 Conflict in the Workplace
Industrial works found their work repetitive and boring Safety is big issue especially for woman and children The Triangle Fire – forced state and national attention Low wages combined with demands for increased productivity led to increase in labor unrest in early 1900s Union membership soared

14 Organizing Labor American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers, was the largest union (no unskilled or women) from 250,000 to 1.7 million in 1904 1903: Women excluded from A.F.L. form Women’s Trade Union League – few members l 1905: Industrial Workers of the World purpose to overthrow capitalism – William D. (Big Bill) Haywood Unions try to negotiate and then use strikes

15 Labor Union Membership, 1897–1920

16 Working with Workers Some employers use violence to keep workers in line Some employers improve working conditions to avoid trouble Henry Ford doubled wages, reduced workday Amoskeag – textile mill in New Hampshire

17 A New Urban Culture Growing middle class
Nation of consumers – mass production provided jobs and products that workers could afford (lowered prices) Death rate dropped – life span increased Cities grew and took on modern look – sky scrapers – department stores, warehouses – wealthy suburbs – zoning, etc.

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