2 PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890s to WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM Progressivism reflects the worry in Society about the effects of Industrialization and urbanizationNational but not a unified group
3 Muckrakers Call for Reform McClure’s Magazine“Muckrakers” write to expose corruption at all levels on every subjectMuckrakers are Journalistic voice of Progressive Age – need to reformIda Tarbell well-known muckrakerLincoln Steffens research on corruption in city governments
4 PROGRESSIVISM Period from 1890S TO WW I Not Radical Change – REFORM Progressivism reflects the worry in Society About the Effects of Industrialization and UrbanizationNational but not a unified group
5 The Innovative Model THenry Ford set standards for mass production with his auto industrySmall profit on each unit, gross of huge profit on high volume of sales1908: Model T introduced“Tin Lizzie” was motor car for everyone1916: Federal government began highway subsidies
6 The Burgeoning TrustsBig business resulted in a growing number of trustsSeries of mergers and consolidations in industry – small guy is gone1% of industry produced half of all manufactured goodFinance men (J.P. Morgan) replace industrial capitalistsQuestion: What should government do about trusts?
7 Managing the MachinesMass production changed direction of American industryBusiness became large scale and mechanized and managedReplacement of industrial giants by financial giantsWorkplace is boring and dangerous because workers must work fast
8 Better Times on the Farm 1920 – 1/3 of people still on farmsIsolation reduced by (RFD) mail and parcel post deliveries to farmsTenant farmers remained impoverishedWestern farmers benefited from vast irrigation projects
9 “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force 1901–1920: Fresh influx of Europeans, Mexicans, Asians to labor forceNon-English speakers considered a social problemPrograms to “Americanize” them
10 “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force Huge numbers of immigrants enter country to join labor forceBirds of passage – temporary migrantChinese immigration banned in 1902Literacy tests used against other immigrant groups
11 Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920 (by Area of Origin)
12 Mexican Immigration to the United States, 1900–1920
13 Conflict in the Workplace Industrial works found their work repetitive and boringSafety is big issue especially for woman and childrenThe Triangle Fire – forced state and national attentionLow wages combined with demands for increased productivity led to increase in labor unrest in early 1900sUnion membership soared
14 Organizing LaborAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers, was the largest union (no unskilled or women) from 250,000 to 1.7 million in 19041903: Women excluded from A.F.L. form Women’s Trade Union League – few members l1905: Industrial Workers of the World purpose to overthrow capitalism – William D. (Big Bill) HaywoodUnions try to negotiate and then use strikes
16 Working with WorkersSome employers use violence to keep workers in lineSome employers improve working conditions to avoid troubleHenry Ford doubled wages, reduced workdayAmoskeag – textile mill in New Hampshire
17 A New Urban Culture Growing middle class Nation of consumers – mass production provided jobs and products that workers could afford (lowered prices)Death rate dropped – life span increasedCities grew and took on modern look – sky scrapers – department stores, warehouses – wealthy suburbs – zoning, etc.