Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Art History"— Presentation transcript:
1An Overview of Art History A look at major trends and schools of art in Western CultureCompiled by Prof. John C. R. SilbertFor use in the HUMA 1010 course, RMU
2Please Note:The following slide presentation and the visuals that accompany it are intended for the sole educational purposes of HUMA 1010 academic study. As such, the material contained herein is offered under the rubric of the fair use clause of U.S. copyright law.Any other uses for this material are prohibited without the permission of the instructor and/or additional inquiry into copyrights that may be held by outside parties.-- Prof. John C. R. SilbertHUMA 1010, RMU
3All Visual Art is Imitation Aristotle’s word for imitation is “mimesis”; what the actor sought to do; to reveal the truth of human beings.Art as Imitation does this in two essential ways:Art as Likeness:Rembrandt Van Rijn (top right)“The Jewish Bride,” 1667Art as Alteration:Wassily Kandinsky (bottom right)“Composition VIII,” 1923Within each essential form there are any number of styles.Some seek to paint what is there to be painted, while others seek to paint what is in the artist’s mind (and heart).
4Classical Art: Art as Likeness Temple of Artemis in EphesusRoman tile portraitGrecian UrnSarcophagus of woman and dog;Late Roman
5Classical Art -- quick facts: Classical art is noted for its strong sense of form, proportion and balance.Much of the art and architecture served the needs of the state.Classical art at first sought to idealize the human form; reaching for perfection (as the gods/goddesses were perfect). Note the sculpture on p. 147 in TABH.Much of the art of the Greek period was attributed to Phidias, a painter, sculptor and architect greatly admired in the 5th cy B.C.E.In the late 4th cy B.C.E., the emphasis shifted towards realism; with less depictions of idealized forms replaced by more life-like human qualities. Note the sculpture on p. 149 in TABH.Roman Art often depicted less serene, more dynamic forms that appealed to human passions.
6Euclid’s “Golden Section” This is a mathematical calculation of balance that states the most pleasing relationship between two connecting parts is such that the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two.It is expressed mathematically as a ratio of 1:1.68.The golden section finds its way into architecture and painting in the classical and subsequent art periods.Leonardo da Vinci was so impressed by this principle that he called it the “Divine Proportion.”
7The Parthenon, Acropolis, Greece Euclid’s Golden Section in Architecture BCThe Golden Section: the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two -- BC is to AB as AB is to AC.Slide reference from
8Leonardo’s “Annunciation of the Virgin” Divide this painting into a square on the left and another on the right. (If it is a root-5 rectangle, these lines mark out two golden-section rectangles as the parts remaining after a square has been removed).Also mark in the lines across the picture which are 0·618 of the way up and 0·618 of the way down it.Also mark in the vertical lines which are 0·618 of the way along from both ends. You will see that these lines mark out significant parts of the picture or go through important objects.You can then try marking lines that divide these parts into their golden sections too.Reference from --
9Bust of Emperor Constantine Byzantine ArtBust of Emperor ConstantineIcon of Madonna and Child
10Byzantine and Medieval Art For nearly a 1000 years, the art world came under the influence of the Christian church. (5th cy C.E. to 15th cy C.E.).Beginning with Emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, the church began a strong cultural mandate in Western culture.The goal of art was to remind people of Jesus Christ, the saints and apostles and the story contained in Holy Scriptures.Depictions of Christ showed his wisdom and depth (a more adult-like face even when showing him as a child.)The Pagan world of classical art was frowned upon.
11Medieval Art Detail of stained glass; From the cathedral at Chartres, FranceSt. Peter with KeysCathedral CarvingPoitiers, France
12The Nave of York Minster Medieval ArtGargoyle; York Minster CathedralThe Nave of York Minster
13The Renaissance “Mona Lisa” ( aka, La Gioconda) wood panel Leonardo da Vinci;“Renaissance” means “rebirth.” This period was known for its flowering in the arts, music and literature. Increasing emphasis was placed on essential human qualities and on freedom and individuality.The three great art figures of this period are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.
14“The Last Supper,” 1498 fresco Leonardo da Vinci;Painted in the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
15“The Pieta,” St. Peter’s Rome Michelangelo“David,” St. Peter’s, Rome“The Pieta,” St. Peter’s Rome
16Details of panels from Michelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel showing the Creation of Adam (top) and Eve (right).
18Rembrandt van Rijn “The Jewish Bride,” 1667 The greatest of “The Dutch Masters,” Rembrandt perfected art as realism and the use of chiaroscura.“The Return of the Prodigal,” 1669
19“The Shootings of May Third,” 1814 Goya“The Shootings of May Third,” 1814“The Puppet,” 1791Goya represents an early turning in art from realism (as likeness), to art as alteration. Many of his works were expressive of an inner vision and commentary about the times in which he lived.
20The Advent of Photography and the end of the dominance of realism Above: 31st PA Regiment Soldier’s Family visits on the battlefield ( );Upper Right: Abraham Lincoln c. 1860;Lower Right: Union Dead at Gettysburg, July 1863
21“Madame Monet and her Son,” 1875 ImpressionismSought to focus on the way light is perceived by the human eye. This period inaugurates art as alteration. Imitation in art is within the painter.“The Waitress,” 1877Eduard Manet“Madame Monet and her Son,” 1875Claude Monet
23Post-Impressionism Vincent Van Gogh “Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear,” 1889“Fifteen Sunflowers in a Vase,” 1888
24“Le Pont de Courbevoie,” 1886-1887, by Georges Seurat Pointilism“Le Pont de Courbevoie,” , by Georges Seurat
25The 1913 69th Regiment Armory Exhibition Named for the building in New York City where this art exhibition took place.Brought to the U.S. many of the new modern artists who were launching into art as alteration with boldness and intensity.This art exhibition found few admirers at the time due to its radical departures from traditional painting.Unlike Van Gogh (and others in Post-impressionist alteration) who began with the natural world and painted it as they saw it, alteration for these modern artists sought to impose something new on the world, something inside themselves.
47“Knife Ship II,” 1986, By Claes Oldenburg Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
48“Flying Pins,” 2000, By Claes Oldenburg; Eindhoven, The Netherlands
49Andrew Wyeth – Prof. Silbert’s favorite artist “Spindrift,” 1950Denounced by some art critiques as a mere “copier” – derogatory even to a realist – Wyeth comes from a long line of artists (his son Jamie) and illustrators (his father, N.C.). Wyeth once spoke of his art as radically abstract.
50“Christina’s World,” 1948 (Maine was one of two places of inspiration to him.).
51Wyeth divides his time between Chadds Ford, PA and Maine. Portrait of President J. F. Kennedy, by Jamie Wyeth, c. 1967“Braids” (Helga), 1979Wyeth divides his time between Chadds Ford, PA and Maine.An illustration for “Treasure Island” by N. C. Wyeth, 1911
53Modern ArchitectureFrank Lloyd Wright, one of the three major architects mentioned in TABH sought to bring balance between form (art), function (use) and the environment. He pushed the notion that “form follows function;” an idea that the needs of a building’s use come first before any artifice (form) should be applied. Buildings should blend with the environment and not overwhelm it. Where necessary, a building should shield the building’s user from harsh and unattractive outside influences.To the Left: “Falling Water,” built for the private use of the Kaufmann family in Ohiopyle, PA.
54The Guggenheim Museum, New York Frank Lloyd WrightThe Guggenheim Museum, New YorkBuilt with thick walls to shut out urban noise and suffused with indirect lighting, Wright sought to create a “quiet oasis” for the viewing of other works of human creativity (modern art).
55The Guggenheim Museum; Bilbao, Spain, 1997 Frank O. GehryThe Guggenheim Museum; Bilbao, Spain, 1997For Gehry, form is paramount to his architectural vision; a vision that is uniquely his. There is nothing “classical” about this structure and unlike Johnson he pays no homage to earlier forms. His architectural is innovative and controversial.
56Philip JohnsonJohnson was inspired by Gothic forms (late medieval church architecture) and re-invigorated them into new striking building designs.Bell Tower, Crystal Cathedral;Garden Grove, CAPPG Place; Pittsburgh, PA