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An Overview of Art History A look at major trends and schools of art in Western Culture Compiled by Prof. John C. R. Silbert For use in the HUMA 1010 course,

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Art History A look at major trends and schools of art in Western Culture Compiled by Prof. John C. R. Silbert For use in the HUMA 1010 course,"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of Art History A look at major trends and schools of art in Western Culture Compiled by Prof. John C. R. Silbert For use in the HUMA 1010 course, RMU

2 Please Note: The following slide presentation and the visuals that accompany it are intended for the sole educational purposes of HUMA 1010 academic study. As such, the material contained herein is offered under the rubric of the fair use clause of U.S. copyright law. Any other uses for this material are prohibited without the permission of the instructor and/or additional inquiry into copyrights that may be held by outside parties. -- Prof. John C. R. Silbert HUMA 1010, RMU

3 All Visual Art is Imitation Aristotles word for imitation is mimesis; what the actor sought to do; to reveal the truth of human beings. Aristotles word for imitation is mimesis; what the actor sought to do; to reveal the truth of human beings. Art as Imitation does this in two essential ways: Art as Imitation does this in two essential ways: –Art as Likeness: Rembrandt Van Rijn (top right) Rembrandt Van Rijn (top right) –The Jewish Bride, 1667 –Art as Alteration: Wassily Kandinsky (bottom right) Wassily Kandinsky (bottom right) –Composition VIII, 1923 Within each essential form there are any number of styles. Within each essential form there are any number of styles. Some seek to paint what is there to be painted, while others seek to paint what is in the artists mind (and heart). Some seek to paint what is there to be painted, while others seek to paint what is in the artists mind (and heart).

4 Classical Art: Classical Art: Art as Likeness Temple of Artemis in Ephesus Sarcophagus of woman and dog; Late Roman Roman tile portrait Grecian Urn

5 Classical Art -- quick facts: Classical art is noted for its strong sense of form, proportion and balance. Much of the art and architecture served the needs of the state. Classical art at first sought to idealize the human form; reaching for perfection (as the gods/goddesses were perfect). Note the sculpture on p. 147 in TABH. Much of the art of the Greek period was attributed to Phidias, a painter, sculptor and architect greatly admired in the 5th cy B.C.E. In the late 4th cy B.C.E., the emphasis shifted towards realism; with less depictions of idealized forms replaced by more life-like human qualities. Note the sculpture on p. 149 in TABH. Roman Art often depicted less serene, more dynamic forms that appealed to human passions.

6 Euclids Golden Section This is a mathematical calculation of balance that states the most pleasing relationship between two connecting parts is such that the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two. It is expressed mathematically as a ratio of 1:1.68. The golden section finds its way into architecture and painting in the classical and subsequent art periods. Leonardo da Vinci was so impressed by this principle that he called it the Divine Proportion.

7 The Parthenon, Acropolis, Greece Euclids Golden Section in Architecture Slide reference from The Golden Section: the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two -- BC is to AB as AB is to AC. ABC

8 Leonardos Annunciation of the Virgin Divide this painting into a square on the left and another on the right. (If it is a root-5 rectangle, these lines mark out two golden-section rectangles as the parts remaining after a square has been removed). Divide this painting into a square on the left and another on the right. (If it is a root-5 rectangle, these lines mark out two golden-section rectangles as the parts remaining after a square has been removed). Also mark in the lines across the picture which are 0·618 of the way up and 0·618 of the way down it. Also mark in the lines across the picture which are 0·618 of the way up and 0·618 of the way down it. Also mark in the vertical lines which are 0·618 of the way along from both ends. You will see that these lines mark out significant parts of the picture or go through important objects. Also mark in the vertical lines which are 0·618 of the way along from both ends. You will see that these lines mark out significant parts of the picture or go through important objects. You can then try marking lines that divide these parts into their golden sections too. You can then try marking lines that divide these parts into their golden sections too. Reference from --

9 Byzantine Art Bust of Emperor Constantine Icon of Madonna and Child

10 Byzantine and Medieval Art For nearly a 1000 years, the art world came under the influence of the Christian church. (5 th cy C.E. to 15 th cy C.E.). For nearly a 1000 years, the art world came under the influence of the Christian church. (5 th cy C.E. to 15 th cy C.E.). Beginning with Emperor Constantines conversion to Christianity, the church began a strong cultural mandate in Western culture. Beginning with Emperor Constantines conversion to Christianity, the church began a strong cultural mandate in Western culture. The goal of art was to remind people of Jesus Christ, the saints and apostles and the story contained in Holy Scriptures. The goal of art was to remind people of Jesus Christ, the saints and apostles and the story contained in Holy Scriptures. Depictions of Christ showed his wisdom and depth (a more adult-like face even when showing him as a child.) Depictions of Christ showed his wisdom and depth (a more adult-like face even when showing him as a child.) The Pagan world of classical art was frowned upon. The Pagan world of classical art was frowned upon.

11 Medieval Art St. Peter with Keys Cathedral Carving Poitiers, France Detail of stained glass; From the cathedral at Chartres, France

12 Medieval Art Gargoyle; York Minster CathedralThe Nave of York Minster

13 The Renaissance Mona Lisa ( aka, La Gioconda) wood panel Leonardo da Vinci; Renaissance means rebirth. This period was known for its flowering in the arts, music and literature. Increasing emphasis was placed on essential human qualities and on freedom and individuality. The three great art figures of this period are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

14 The Last Supper, 1498 fresco Leonardo da Vinci; Painted in the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

15 Michelangelo David, St. Peters, Rome The Pieta, St. Peters Rome

16 Details of panels from Michelangelos painting of the Sistine Chapel showing the Creation of Adam (top) and Eve (right).

17 Raphael Sanzio School of Athens, 1510

18 Rembrandt van Rijn The Jewish Bride, 1667 The Return of the Prodigal, 1669 The greatest of The Dutch Masters, Rembrandt perfected art as realism and the use of chiaroscura.

19 Goya The Shootings of May Third, 1814 The Puppet, 1791 Goya represents an early turning in art from realism (as likeness), to art as alteration. Many of his works were expressive of an inner vision and commentary about the times in which he lived.

20 The Advent of Photography and the end of the dominance of realism Above: 31 st PA Regiment Soldiers Family visits on the battlefield ( ); Upper Right: Abraham Lincoln c. 1860; Lower Right: Union Dead at Gettysburg, July 1863

21 Impressionism The Waitress, 1877 Eduard Manet Madame Monet and her Son, 1875 Claude Monet Sought to focus on the way light is perceived by the human eye. This period inaugurates art as alteration. Imitation in art is within the painter.

22 The Childs Bath, 1893 Mary Cassatt

23 Post-Impressionism Vincent Van Gogh Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889 Fifteen Sunflowers in a Vase, 1888

24 Pointilism Le Pont de Courbevoie, , by Georges Seurat

25 The th Regiment Armory Exhibition Named for the building in New York City where this art exhibition took place. Named for the building in New York City where this art exhibition took place. Brought to the U.S. many of the new modern artists who were launching into art as alteration with boldness and intensity. Brought to the U.S. many of the new modern artists who were launching into art as alteration with boldness and intensity. This art exhibition found few admirers at the time due to its radical departures from traditional painting. This art exhibition found few admirers at the time due to its radical departures from traditional painting. Unlike Van Gogh (and others in Post-impressionist alteration) who began with the natural world and painted it as they saw it, alteration for these modern artists sought to impose something new on the world, something inside themselves. Unlike Van Gogh (and others in Post-impressionist alteration) who began with the natural world and painted it as they saw it, alteration for these modern artists sought to impose something new on the world, something inside themselves.

26 Abstractionism Composition VIII, 1923, Vasiliy Kandinsky

27 Arearea (Joyousness), 1892, by Paul Gauguin

28 Cubism Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1902, By Pablo Picasso

29 Guitar and Violin, c By Pablo Picasso

30 Guernica, 1937; By Pablo Picasso

31 Bottle and Fishes, 1910; By Georges Braque

32 Surrealism The Persistence of Memory, 1931 By Salvador Dali A style of painting that has recognizable figures and shapes but these things are related to each other as objects in dreamlike state.

33 The Last Supper, 1955, By Salvador Dali

34 Georgia OKeefe Series 1, Number 8, 1919 Iris, 1929

35 Red and Orange Hills,

36 Modern Realism Nighthawks, 1942, By Edward Hopper

37 Cape Cod Afternoon, 1936 (Carnegie Museum of Art)

38 A Woman in the Sun, 1961, The Whitney

39 Into Bondage, 1936, Aaron Douglas

40 Aspects of Negro Life: From Slavery through Reconstruction, 1934

41 Ugly Americans, by Duane Hanson

42 Abstract Expressionism Greyed Rainbow, 1953, By Jackson Pollock

43 Study for Woman Number 1, 1952, By Willem de Kooning

44 Pop Art Beethoven, 1987, By Andy Warhol Campbells Soup 1, 1968, By Andy Warhol

45 Elvis, 1964

46 Soft Toilet, 1966 By Claes Oldenburg

47 Knife Ship II, 1986, By Claes Oldenburg Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles

48 Flying Pins, 2000, By Claes Oldenburg; Eindhoven, The Netherlands

49 Andrew Wyeth – Prof. Silberts favorite artist Spindrift, 1950 Denounced by some art critiques as a mere copier – derogatory even to a realist – Wyeth comes from a long line of artists (his son Jamie) and illustrators (his father, N.C.). Wyeth once spoke of his art as radically abstract.

50 Christinas World, 1948 (Maine was one of two places of inspiration to him.).

51 Braids (Helga), 1979 Wyeth divides his time between Chadds Ford, PA and Maine. Portrait of President J. F. Kennedy, by Jamie Wyeth, c An illustration for Treasure Island by N. C. Wyeth, 1911

52 Wind from the Sea, 1948

53 To the Left: Falling Water, built for the private use of the Kaufmann family in Ohiopyle, PA. Modern Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the three major architects mentioned in TABH sought to bring balance between form (art), function (use) and the environment. He pushed the notion that form follows function; an idea that the needs of a buildings use come first before any artifice (form) should be applied. Buildings should blend with the environment and not overwhelm it. Where necessary, a building should shield the buildings user from harsh and unattractive outside influences.

54 Frank Lloyd Wright The Guggenheim Museum, New York Built with thick walls to shut out urban noise and suffused with indirect lighting, Wright sought to create a quiet oasis for the viewing of other works of human creativity (modern art).

55 Frank O. Gehry The Guggenheim Museum; Bilbao, Spain, 1997 For Gehry, form is paramount to his architectural vision; a vision that is uniquely his. There is nothing classical about this structure and unlike Johnson he pays no homage to earlier forms. His architectural is innovative and controversial.

56 Philip Johnson PPG Place; Pittsburgh, PA Bell Tower, Crystal Cathedral; Garden Grove, CA Johnson was inspired by Gothic forms (late medieval church architecture) and re-invigorated them into new striking building designs.

57 Wedding at the Crystal Cathedral

58 American Gothic, 1930 By Grant Wood As TABH says, The world of art belongs to you.


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