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Supported and endorsed by: Sud de France Master-Level Webinar Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Supported and endorsed by: Sud de France Master-Level Webinar Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supported and endorsed by: Sud de France Master-Level Webinar Program

2 Webinar 3: Grapes and Winemaking The Players in the Game

3 Look at the major and some minor grape varieties of the region A resume of the types of wine and winemaking techniques used. Understand the wine quality designations of the region Learning Objectives

4 AOC VDN OC IGP Sparkling White varieties M= Minervois blanc Bourboulenc Carignan blanc Chardonnay Chasan Chenin Colombard Clairette Grenache blanc Grenache gris Macabeu Malvoisie du Roussillon Marsanne Mauzac Muscat à petits grains Muscat d’Alexandrie Picquepoul blanc Roussanne Sauvignon Sémillon Terret Ugni blanc Vermentino Viognier M

5 Red and Rosé varieties C= Cabardès M= Malepère L = Limoux CR= Crémant Cabernet franc Cabernet-Sauvignon Carignan noir Marselan Cinsault Cot Grenache noir Grenache gris Lladoner Pelut Merlot Mourvèdre Petit Verdot Pinot noir Portan Syrah AOC VDN OC IGP C – M C – M – L C – M - L L – CR

6 56 varieties allowed for IGP Pays d’Oc Primary grapes

7 56 varieties allowed for IGP Pays d’Oc Secondary grapes

8 White Grape Varieties Main Local Varieties : – Piquepoul Blanc – Grenache Blanc – Grenache Gris – Bourboulenc – Muscats – Macabeu – Roussanne – Marsanne – Clairette – Mauzac

9 White Grape Varieties Important Local varieties – Grenache Gris – Bourboulenc – Macabeu – Mauzac – Clairette – Vermentino (Rolle)

10 White Grape Varieties International Varieties – Chardonnay – Sauvignon Blanc – Viognier

11 White Grape Varieties Out of favour – Chasan – Terret – Ugni Blanc

12 White Grape Varieties Surprises – Gewurztraminer – Riesling – Sylvaner – Altesse – Pinot Blanc

13 Red Grape Varieties Main Local Varieties – Grenache Noir – Carignan – Syrah – Mourvèdre – Cinsault

14 Red Grape Varieties International Varieties – Cabernet Sauvignon – Cabernet Franc – Merlot – Cot (Malbec) – Pinot Noir

15 Red Grape Varieties Out of favor – Alicante Bouschet – Portan – Marselan – Chenanson

16 Red Grape Varieties Surprises – Carmenère – Mondeuse – Négrette – Nielluccio – Petit Verdot – Tempranillo

17 Gobelet /Bush vine Traditional method. Used for old varieties esp Grenache and Carignan Trellising Modern vineyards planted on posts and wires. Irrigation. Viticulture

18 Vinification, maturation and characteristics Traditional maceration after crushing Carbonic maceration (Ex: Carignan ) Flash-Détente process, Thermovinification Microbullage (micro-oxygenation) Mandatory malo-lactic fermentation Maturation: - AOC: an average of 2 years in vat or in wood - VDPOC (Wines of Pays d ’Oc): from 6 months to 2 years (barrels, chips) Dry red wines (*different types of vinification)

19 Vinification, maturation and characteristics Vinification obtained by bleeding after a few hours of maceration Vinification obtained by direct pressing Possible malo-lactic fermentation Maturation : “Age-able” wine (which is sometimes vinified and aged in oak barrels) Dry Rosé wines

20 Vinification, maturation and characteristics Mostly made from direct pressing; some maceration Vinification at controlled temperatures Some vinification in barrels Possible malo-lactic fermentation Stored in cellar: Most of them should be drunk young (2 years) Wines aged in oak barrels: longer-lived Dry white wines

21 Vinification of Vins Doux Naturels (VDN) 1285: Arnaud de Vilanova During fermentation, a 96% vol. neutral grape alcohol is added, in the amount of 5% to 10 % of the volume of the must in order to halt the yeast action Some VDN are made by mutage “sur grains“; others by mutage in the liquid phase Mutage

22 Vinification of Vins Doux Naturels (VDN)


24 Vinification and maturation of VDNs Red, Tuilé – Vinification either through: Mutage on must, long maceration in alcohol Mutage after pressing of must derived from traditional maceration – Maturation of Red VDN Tuilé VDN White, Ambré – Vinification either through: Maceration for a few hours Direct pressing Mutage sur marc (Muscat) or on must (liquid phase) – Maturation of White VDN Ambré VDN

25 Vinification of sparkling wines Whole grape pressing Juice selection and complete fermentation in temperature-controlled vats. Just before bottling, a liqueur de tirage (mixture of yeasts and sugar) is added so that a second fermentation will take place in the bottle, thus enabling bubble formation; the yeasts convert the sugar into alcohol and fine bubbles. This second in-bottle fermentation lasts several months (at least 9 months for the Blanquette de Limoux and 12 for the Crémant de Limoux). The daily remuage (riddling) in the pupitres allows the sediment deposit formed in the bottle to move into the neck. The neck of the bottle is then frozen in order to expel the deposit. Before the final corking, a liqueur d’expédition (sugar dosage) is added which gives each cuvée its dry or semi-dry character.

26 Vins de pays d’Oc Vendanges Surmûries Naturally sweet wines, resulting from the vinification of an over-ripe harvest without alcohol ‘mutage’ The over-ripeness of the grapes can be obtained via: concentration on the vine or through ‘passerillage’ noble rot Natural sugar content in the must: minimum 252 g/L Analytical norms as per the approved Appellation rules : Minimum (4.5%) 45 g/l residual sugar in the finished wine

27 France’s Organic Vineyards


29 EU rules for Organic New EU rules from 2012 vintage ‘Organic wine” applies to winemaking as well as viticulture Banned substances eg Sorbic Acid Lower levels of SO2 No reciprocal agreement for US

30 Wine Quality designations


32 Languedoc-Roussillon AOC s – Languedoc + 15 designations – Corbières Corbières Boutenac – Minervois Minervois La Livinière – Saint Chinian Saint Chinian Roquebrun Saint Chinian Berlou – Faugères – Limoux (Still & sparkling AOCs) – Malepère – Cabardès – Clairette du Languedoc – Muscat de Frontignan, de Lunel, de Mireval et de Saint Jean de Minervois (VDN) – Côtes du Roussillon Côtes du Roussillon Les Aspres – Côtes du Roussillon Villages Côtes du Roussillon Villages Caramany Côtes du Roussillon Villages Latour de France Côtes du Roussillon Villages Lesquerde Côtes du Roussillon Villages Tautavel – Collioure – Muscat de Rivesaltes (VDN) – Rivesaltes (VDN) – Maury (VDN) and Sec – Banyuls & Banyuls Grand Cru (VDN) AOC LANGUEDOC AOC ROUSSILLON

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