Presentation on theme: "Southern & South-Western France. Location Production BORDEAUX=121,500 ha RHONE VALLEY= 79,900 ha BURGUNDY= 49,200 ha LOIRE VALLEY= 48,600 ha LANGUEDOC="— Presentation transcript:
Southern & South-Western France
Production BORDEAUX=121,500 ha RHONE VALLEY= 79,900 ha BURGUNDY= 49,200 ha LOIRE VALLEY= 48,600 ha LANGUEDOC= 38,350 ha ALSACE= 15,300 ha PROVENCE= 29,000 ha
4 Provence Rosé, Red & White Languedoc-Roussillon Red, Rosé & White Wine Styles - South
5 Provence – Mostly Appellation Contrôlée Languedoc-Roussillon – mostly Vin de Pays Quality Classifications
Climate & Viticulture Mediterranean climate Provence affected by mistral Languedoc & Roussillon affected by tramontane Possible drought in Languedoc & Roussillon Many organic producers
7 Traditional Grape Varieties Carignan Grenache Cinsault Mourvèdre Syrah Clairette Grenache Blanc Ugni Blanc Maccabeu Southern France
8 International Grape Varieties Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Chardonnay Sauvignon Blanc Viognier Southern France
Rivers The wines are related to the rivers: Dordogne Garonne Lot and their tributaries. The Garonne is about 575km long and flows in an arc from its origin in the Spanish Pyrenees Joined by the Ariège and the Gers before being joined by the Tarn flowing from the east, near Toulouse and finally by the Lot. This means that it drains most of the south-west region and it cuts through one of the largest alluvial plains in France.
Rivers The Dordogne flows more or less east to west for about 500km flowing through Limousin and Périgord. The Lot also flows west to east, though the old region of Quercy, for about 481km. The river fell into disuse as a transportation means in the 1920s as a result of railway completion.
Climate Climate becomes more continental as you go eastwards Hours of sunshine rise as you go south. No difficulty getting 2200 hours of sunshine per year. Effect of the varied landscape Considerable difference between the uplands and the plains. Significant variation in the soils profiles of the region.
Grapes Two types Those in use in Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon Local grapes often indigenous to a small region Abouriou, Clairette, Colombard, Duras, Fer, Folle Blanche, Gros and Petit Manseng, Len de l'El, Malbec, Muscadelle, Négrette, Tannat, Ugni blanc.
Satellites of Bordeaux The main ACs are Buzet, Bergerac, Côtes de Duras Monbazillac. Reds and whites are made from the same grapes as Bordeaux, and in the same style.
Buzet Buzet has about 1700 ha under vines on the left bank of the Garonne. Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc are grown, Merlot is the most important red grape. Small quantity of white wine is made from the Bordeaux grapes.
Bergerac Bergerac is a big producing area through which the Dordogne flows. about 12,600 ha under vines Produces red and both dry and sweet white wines as well as rosé wine 13 different ACs. Reds and dry whites are in the image of Bordeaux. Red wines blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot sometimes supplemented by Côt or Fer Servadou or Mérille. White wines are mainly a blend of Sémillon with Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris and Muscadelle. some blends with Ugni Blanc, Ondenc and Chenin Blanc. Bergerac AC Generic AC for the dry white wines, rosé wines and red wines of the region. Bordeaux blends designed to be drunk within a year or so of the vintage. Côtes de Bergerac AC is regarded as producing better wine.
Côtes de Duras An extension of Bordeaux with the same basic climate though the weather is generally hotter and drier. Whites are Sauvignon Blanc (67% of planting), Sémillon, Muscadelle with the addition of Mauzac, Rouchelein, Chenin Blanc and Ondenc. Red wines come from Merlot (52% of planting), Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Côt with a limit of 55 hl/ha.
Montravel Wines are predominantly white. Main grape is Sémillon and quality has improved in recent years. Only about 360ha under vines and the sweet versions are hard to come by (<50ha) AC Côtes de Montravel or Haut-Montravel.
Monbazillac AC for serious sweet white wine Only hand harvesting is permitted Sweet wines must be made with grapes affected by noble rot. If the rot does not materialise, the wine must be sold as dry Bergerac AC. Look out for Chateau Tirecul La Graviere.
Pécharmant About 360 ha under vines Most of wine is red and a Bordeaux blend, with some Malbec but in which Merlot figures strongly. The wines will age from four to ten years and are tannic in youth. Good examples are full bodied, dark ruby in colour but with good fruit.
Saussignac Developing a reputation for its sweet botrytis white wines based on Sémillon and Muscadelle. A little drier in style than those of Montbazillac Clos dYvigne (Patricia Atkinson) Chateau Richard.
Cahors The AC dates from 1971 and it is based on Malbec, known locally as Côt" Malbec must make up a minimum of 70% Merlot and Tannat as supplementary grapes. White and rosé wine produced in the same area is sold as Vin de Pays du Lot. Malbec, despite being a relatively thin skinned grape, produces wines of very deep colour. Very deep purple in youth = black wines. Needs more sun to ripen than Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot but ripens early. Highly tannic and so is often used in Bordeaux blends to give some body Suffers badly from frost damage, as mentioned above, and coulure.
Tannat and Fer Tannat is suggestive of tannins and the association is justified. Often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Fer to soften them. Ages well and it is an important element in the wines in the Basque areas near the Pyrénées. Modern versions tend to use oak to soften the tannins with an emphasis on producing a fruit-forward wine. The problem is that this is not the traditional style expected from the grape. Fer is favoured for its perfumed current aromas, soft tannins and concentrated fruit.
AC Béarn A complex area AC in its own right Can also be used within the AC regions of Madiran and Irouléguy. Production is relatively small at 269ha. Reds are Bordeaux-like Only a tiny amount of white
Madiran AC is for red wine only. Tannat must comprise between 40-60% of the wine and it is supplemented by the two Cabernets and Fer. Main producers use 100% Tannat grapes The wine needs time to develop and only top class versions are worth the trouble.
Jurançon White wine in a dry and sweet version from Gros Manseng, Petit Manseng and Courbu. Sweet wines from Petit Manseng Often hand selected into October and should have noble rot.
Irouléguy AC About 210 ha New AC, having been created only in 1970 About 70% is red with the remainder divided into 20% rosé and 10% white. Red Bordelesa Beltza (Tannat), Axeria (Cabernet Franc and Axeria Handia (Cabernet Sauvignon) White come from Xuri Zerratia (Courbu), Izkiriota Ttipia (Petit Manseng) and Izkiriota (Gros Manseng).