Introduction I was asked to complete an appropriate document for a client in relation to nutrition and to make recommendations for the nutritional requirements of this specific client. Only a dietician can provide specific and accurate information so, I am going to give this client, Tom, an outline of what is required and what the daily recommended amounts are of each nutrient. In this document, I will outline the nutrients essential to a persons diet. It will include the sources of these nutrients, the amounts of them that are needed and the necessity of them. I have compiled a group of questions which would help me to understand Toms position a little better. Then I delved into information about athletes and their requirements. I hope Tom can read through this and understand what his needs might be..
Basic Nutrients The seven basic nutrients are as follows: CarbohydratesProteinsFatsMineralsVitaminsFiberWater Food is essential, without it there would be starvation in the world. Food is what keeps our body running and these nutrients can all be found in vaious foods.
Carbohydrates These are what fuel our bodies. There is a simple carbohydrate known as glucose which is often known as sugar. Glucose flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in the body. Glucose, fructose and galactose are all monosaccharides. This means that the carbohydrates are absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal lining. Whereas lactose, sucrose and maltose are disaccharides. These can be easily converted into their monosaccharide base by an enzyme in the digestive tract. Starch is the very familiar carbohydrate and it is known as a “complex carbohydrate" as it is made up of chains of glucose molecules. Starch is the way that plants store energy. This can be found in rice, wheat, corn and oats. The difference between a complex carbohydrate and glucose is that glucose enters the bloodstream at around 30 calories per minute. This is much faster than the complex carbohydrate which is digested much more slowly and enters at a rate of around 2 calories per minute. This shows that carbohydrates provide the energy that cells need to survive.
Proteins These are chains of amino acids. An amino acid is a small molecule that acts as the building block of any cell. Carbohydrates provide cells with energy, while the amino acids provide cells with the building material they need to grow and keep their structure. A body is about 20 percent protein by weight. There are 2 types of amino acids; essential amino acids and non essential amino acids. The difference is that essential amino acids cannot be made in the body and need to come from food, whereas non essential amino acids can be created by chemicals found in your body. Protein in our diet can come from eggs, beans, milk and especially meat. There are 20 essential amino acids in the human body whereas in nature there are thought to be around 100. The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of protein is 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight. A glass of milk contains about 8 grams of protein. A slice of bread might contain 2/3 grams of protein. This shows that it is easy to have a sufficient amount of protein your body just by eating and drinking normal everyday foods. diet
Fats Meat contains animal fat. Most breads and pastries contain vegetable oils. There are two well known types of fats; saturated fats and un-saturated fats. The difference is that saturated fats are solid at room temperature, for example lard, and un saturated fats are liquid at room temperature, for example vegetable oil. Monounsaturated fats, which can be found in olive oil, are thought to be healthier than polyunsaturated fats. Fats enter the digestive system and come in contact with the enzyme lipase. Lipase breaks the fat into 2 parts; glycerol and fatty acids. These are then formed into triglycerides for transport in the bloodstream. These are then stored to use or burn as fuel. Fat is essential for a few reasons, but especially for the absorption of certain vitamins. Without fats, some vitamins could not be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Vitamins These are molecules that keep the body running in good order. There are 13 types of vitamins; Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6,Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Pantothenic Acid and Biotin. A lacking in these vitamins can cause diseases and illnesses. The problems are as follows: Lacking Vitamin A: Night Blindness Lacking Vitamin B1: Beriberi Lacking Vitamin B2: Mouth problems Lacking Vitamin B3: Pellagra Lacking Vitamin B12: Pernicious Anaemia (an extreme form of anaemia) Lacking Vitamin C: Scurvy Lacking Vitamin D: Rickets Lacking Vitamin E: Poor absorption of fats and anaemia Lacking Vitamin K: Poor blood clotting and internal bleeding Processing foods tends to destroy the natural vitamins in food.
Minerals These are elements that our bodies need to create specific molecules. The most common minerals are: Calcium, Chlorine, Chromium, Copper, Fluorine, Iodine, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sodium Zinc. As with vitamins, if there is a lacking of any of the minerals, diseases may arise.
Water Our bodies are made up of 60 percent water and when one sleeps, we lose 40 ounces of that water. Water is lost through perspiration, by urine and by respiration. Due to this, we must replace it immediately, otherwise we can become dehydrated. Water can be replaced through moist foods, fruits and by drinking at least 8 pints of water.
Fibre Fibre can be found in whole wheat foods such as wholemeal bread, wholemeal rice. Fibre is the only nutrient that cannot be digested and there are 3 types; Cellulose, Hemicellulose Pectin. Pectin can be found in fruits, like lemons. When we eat fibre, it passes straight through without coming in contact with the digestive system. Nutrients are essential to all of us. They can be found in every type of food and liquids. Tom must continue to drink plenty of water, at least 40 ounces. He should eat an adequate amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats for him to have energy.
Questions in relation to Athletes Are you a vegetarian or a vegan of any sort? How much time would you give before taking part in an activity to allow yourself a sufficient meal? This meal should be high in carbohydrates, low in fat and have a moderate amount of protein. What types of foods would you consider to leave out of a big meal that you would eat prior to exercising? Would you consider the foods that you do include in your meal as foods that will fuel your body? Do you take many fluids prior to exercising that would be considered an isotonic beverage? Athletes, especially, must keep hydrated as they lose a lot of fluids through perspiration and radiation. Would you ever consider skipping meals before undertaking an exercise or after an exercise of any form? Do you or have you ever taken vitamin or mineral supplements? Or have you ever taken ergogenic aids?
Questions (contd) Do you have a general idea as to what the daily requirement for each of the nutrients is in relation to athletes? They tend to vary because of energy used and muscles used as well. How often a day would you eat a regular sized meal and do you stick to a certain type of meal? Is there a variety on what you like to eat? Do you often snack during large meals? Do you feel that you have a healthy diet? Would your diet consist of a variety of fresh fruit and vegetables? If so how would you consume them? Would they be raw, boiled, fried or altered in anyway? I ask this because the cooking of some foods can diminish the amount of certain vitamins and minerals in them. Are you allergic to any foods, such as peanuts, spices or dairy products?
Would an athletes nutritional requirements differ from that of a less active person? Yes, of course his requirements would differ dramatically. He exercises regularly which means that he is using more energy than the normal average person. His nutritional requirements would contain a lot of foods and beverages that consist of all the energy bearing nutrients; carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Especially carbohydrates as these are seen to be the most energy providing nutrient. It does of course depend on the gender, weight and age of the athlete, how much his requirements would differ, but in general, Tom definitely needs to consume more proteins, fats and carbohydrates. He would also need to have an adequate balance of electrolytes for his glucose levels which would include sodium, chlorine and potassium to keep his energy levels up while exercising. He needs to consume plenty of fluids to compensate for the amount that he loses while exercising. This is due to the loss during perspiration and urine and which could lead to dehydration.
What are good ways of giving people advice in relation to nutrition? Advice must be advice only as we are not dieticians therefore we can not specify certain amounts. The best way to do this would be to give people a brief outline of the 7 nutrients and explain the benefits they have to the body and performance wise, how they can be an asset aswell as essential to the quality of performing. I think guiding them to the correct references would also be helpful in a way as they can interpret it their own way and decide whether or not they feel the advice given on certain pages would be considered appropriate. As I do not have the correct authority to give to go into exact detail about nutrients and nutritional requirements, I feel that the advice I provide can only be a guideline and not as detailed as some might like.
What are the chief ingredients of a nutritious diet and why are they important? The 7 nutrients must be included in every diet, otherwise a deficiency might occur and this is not good for the health of someone or anyone at that. The seven nutrients each have their own characteristics and are beneficial to the body in different ways, yet some need others to function properly, eg: Vitamin D is needed to aid calcium absorbtion. This is just one of the many examples of how nutrients depend on each other. As water is one of the seven nutrients, it is evidents that it is very essential aswell, it will help to keep a constant blood flow around the body and keep a person hydrated at all times. This is quite essential, as fluid is lost very easily and needs to be replaced as soon as possible. There is, in my opinion, no actual chief ingredient in a nutritious diet as all of the nutrients are similarily as important. They each serve a different purpose in the body, therefore I don’t think there would be much point specifying which is of more importance.
Conclusion I enjoyed doing this task for Tom, I hope that the information and solutions that I offered will be of some use to you. The nutritional information and advice must only be used as a guideline as I am not qualified to give such specific information. The seven nutrients, as detailed throughout this document, must be included in every daily meal as they are the basis to being healthy; supplements just don’t provide enough. Athletes need to consume more energy providing nutrients as they will not be able to perform to their best ability without that extra edge. Water is incredibly essential for an athletes diet to prevent dehydration which can result in terrible illnesses. It replaces lost fluids and can be found in various food sources as well in liquid form.