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Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson C7-8 The Sheep and Goat Industry.

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1 Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson C7-8 The Sheep and Goat Industry

2 Interest Approach  Ask the students to name as many products as possible made from sheep and goats. Record the examples on the writing surface. Encourage students to come up with meat, milk, chammy, clothing, and other items. Ask students if they have ever tasted lamb, mutton, goat meat (chevon), goat cheese, goat milk, or sheep milk. If they have not, discuss how they think the items might taste. If time allows, have a blind taste test of some sheep and goat food products. Discuss the students’ reactions. Ask why we don’t see more of these products in general use, as we do beef, pork, and poultry.

3 Objectives  Define terms used to describe sheep and goats, and identify the parts of sheep and goats.  Compare and contrast the common breeds of sheep.  Compare and contrast the types of goats.

4 Objectives  Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production.  Determine the facility and equipment needs in sheep and goat production.  Identify leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and determine the major export and import markets for the United States.

5 Objectives  Examine the impact of the sheep and goat industry on the economy.  Identify common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and determine appropriate prevention and treatment methods.

6 Terms  buck  cabrito  cashmere  chammy  chevon  chevre  doe  Easter kid  ewe  kid  kidding  lamb  lambing  mohair

7 Terms  mutton  ram  wether  wool  yearling

8 What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?  Knowing basic sheep and goat terminology is important.  A. The following are common names and terminology used in describing sheep and goats. 1. A ewe is a female sheep. 2. A ram is a male sheep used for breeding purposes. 3. A doe is a female goat at any age. 4. A buck is a male goat at any age. 5. A kid is a goat of either sex under one year of age.

9 What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats? 6. A yearling is a goat of either sex one year old or older but less than two years old. 7. A wether is a male sheep or goat castrated when it was young. 8. Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth. 9. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth. 10. Wool is a sheep’s coat used as a fiber for products, such as clothing. 11. Chammy is leather made from sheep or goats.

10 What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?  B. When the main purpose of a sheep or goat is meat consumption, we look at it to identify its basic external parts and to identify its meat cuts.  1. Many external parts of sheep and goats must be known to “speak the language” when judging or selecting one animal over another.

11 What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?

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13  2. Many other terms should be known in reference to meat cuts taken from sheep and goats. a. Lamb is meat from a sheep under one year old (young sheep).  Mutton is meat from a sheep one year old or older.  Lamb is considered a delicacy. b. Meat from a goat is referred to as chevon.

14 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  There are more than 200 breeds of sheep.  Selection of a specific breed for production depends on the grower’s personal needs and goals.  A. The Suffolk breed originated in England and was imported to the United States in The body of the Suffolk is large, and the head, legs, and ears are black. This is the largest breed in the United States, and the breed has a rapid growth rate. The breed is polled and produces a medium-grade fleece. Production of market lambs is common among Suffolk owners because lambs grow rapidly and produce high- cutability carcasses.

15 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  B. The Dorset is a sheep breed that originated in England and was imported to the United States in Dorset sheep are medium sized, with white faces and wool extending down the legs. This medium-wool breed can be polled or horned. Dorset ewes are known for their out-of-season breeding, which results in fall lambs. They are also known for their prolificacy. They are heavy milkers and produce hardy lambs. The lambs are considered moderate growers and produce heavy-muscled carcasses.

16 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  C. The Hampshire originated in England and was imported to the United States before Hampshires are large, polled sheep with dark brown or black faces, noses, ears, and legs. Hampshires have a wool cap on the forehead. Hampshire sheep are noted for their rapid growth and efficient feed conversion. These early-maturing sheep are good milkers and produce lambs with good carcass cutability.

17 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  D. The Oxford is a medium- wool breed that originated in England and was imported to the United States around This breed is very large and polled. The face, ears, and legs are gray to brownish. The fleece is heavy, weighing between 10 and 12 pounds. The lambs grow quickly. The breed is used in crossbreeding programs because of its size.

18 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  E. The Rambouillet is a dual-purpose breed. The sheep have white wool and blocky bodies, with wool on the legs. They are horned or polled. Rambouillet sheep are rugged and adapt well to a variety of range conditions. They are descendants of Merino sheep, which gives them their distinct, high-quality, fine- wool fleece. Rambouillet sheep have an extended breeding season.

19 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  F. Columbia sheep were developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to increase the ability of sheep on the range. Breed lines from Lincoln and Rambouillet sheep were used to develop Columbia sheep. In terms of animal size, the Columbia is one of the largest breeds in the United States. It is used to produce fast-growing, lean market lambs. Columbia sheep are known for their adaptability to range conditions. Their wool is classified as medium.

20 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  G. The Cheviot breed of sheep originated in the Cheviot Hills on the border between England and Scotland. The Cheviot is short, small sized, and distinctive, with a wool-free white face and black muzzle. The legs are wool free, and the feet are black. Cheviots are a very active, long-wool breed. They are hornless. Ewes have good lambing ability and strong mothering instincts. Cheviot sheep produce a high-yielding medium wool.

21 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  H. Corriedale sheep were developed in New Zealand and Australia by crossing Lincoln/Leicester rams with Merino ewes. The breed is extremely popular worldwide. It is known as a dual-purpose breed. The animals are large framed and polled. They have good carcass quality. Corriedale sheep came to the United States in They produce good market lambs and yield medium-wool fleece.

22 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  I. The Montadale breed of sheep began in 1932 with the crossing of a Columbia ram and a Cheviot ewe. The development of this breed took nine years. Throughout these years, tests were conducted on the growth and development of lambs, while the number of lambs per ewe and the weights of lamb and fleece were monitored. The breed is now a standard in the sheep industry. Montadales have good carcass quality, growth rate, and lambing percentage. They are medium-sized, white-faced sheep with white wool and serve as a dual-purpose breed.

23 What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  J. Southdown sheep are known for their meaty carcasses. They were developed in England and came to the United States in the 1820s. They are considered a small- to medium-sized breed. The face and lower legs of the Southdown are light gray. The breed is polled and early maturing, with good lambing ability. Southdown sheep are very docile and are preferred for intensive management. They produce muscular, lightweight carcasses.

24 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  There are more than 300 breeds of domestic goats.  Selection of a specific breed for production depends on the grower’s personal needs and goals.  Goats are typically classified into types.  A. Angora goats originated in Turkey and are well adapted to areas not fit for other livestock. Angoras are almost totally white at maturity and produce up to 7 pounds of mohair each year. Angora goats are horned, with long, droopy ears. At maturity, a buck weighs between 125 and 175 pounds, and a doe weighs between 80 and 90 pounds.

25 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  B. Dairy goats can produce 5 pounds of milk per day. They supply 1.8 percent of the milk supply in the world. Goat milk has more minerals than cow milk and is easier for small children and elderly people to digest. The most common breeds raised in the United States, in order of their popularity, are French Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg.  1. French Alpine goats are known as good milkers and have no distinct color. However, they are commonly shades of fawn, gray, brown, red, and black, or combinations of these colors. This breed has short hair. French Alpines are larger-sized goats with a rangy look.

26 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  2. LaMancha goats are known for their unique ears. Two types—“gopher ears” and “elf ears”—are distinctive breed characteristics. This breed has high milk production.  3. Nubian goats are all-purpose goats that are useful for meat, milk, and hide production. They are not heavy milk producers, but their milk has a high average butterfat content. Nubian goats have long ears.

27 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  4. Saanen goats originated in Switzerland. They are known as heavy milk producers. Saanen goats are white or light cream in color, with white preferred. The hair should be short and fine. Saanens perform best in cooler conditions.  5. Toggenburg goats are a medium-sized breed from Switzerland. They are known to be the oldest credited dairy goat breed. Toggenburg goats have excellent udder development and high milk production. The color is solid, varying from light fawn to dark chocolate. Toggenburgs have erect ears.

28 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  C. Meat goats are also known as Spanish goats and are used for milk and meat.  1. Boer goats came from South Africa and made their first appearance to the United States in Boer goats are known for their rapid growth rate, excellent carcass qualities, and adaptability. They have white bodies with red heads. This breed has grown in popularity among FFA and 4-H projects, as well as in the show ring.

29 What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  D. Cashmere goats have been developed by selective breeding. Cashmere is the soft undercoat of fine down produced by goats. There is usually a large demand for cashmere because it is in short supply. Solid-colored goats are preferred in cashmere production, but multicolored goats are also used.  E. Pygmy goats were originally imported from Africa. They are only 16 to 23 inches tall at the withers and have horns. They can be any color or combination of colors. The main uses of pygmy goats are for research, as pets, as 4-H and FFA projects, and in zoo exhibits.

30 What are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production?  Sheep and goat production has several advantages and disadvantages.  A. The advantages of raising sheep and goats are: 1. Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do well on range environments. 2. Compared with beef animals, sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage. 3. Sheep and goats are used for more than one purpose. 4. Lambs and goats have a fast growth rate, and a return on investment can be seen in a short time. 5. Sheep and goats can be raised together. 6. Sheep are used in public and private areas to control plants, such as poison ivy and honeysuckle. 7. Sheep and goats are popular for young children to raise as 4-H and FFA projects.

31 What are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production?  B. The disadvantages of raising sheep and goats are: 1. The price of wool is very low. 2. The popularity of lamb and mutton is low.  Interest has lacked in lamb for the diet. However, some improvements have been made in promoting lamb consumption. 3. Disease and parasite presence is high in the production of sheep and goats. 4. Predators (e.g., dogs, wolves, and coyotes) typically attack sheep and goats. 5. Animals used for more than one purpose can cause an increase in labor.

32 What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  Sheep and goat facilities and equipment vary based on climate, lambing/kidding season, and individual preferences.  Sheep and goats do not need shelter at all times.  They are very adaptable to a variety of climates and conditions.  Some sheep and goats are raised in confinement settings.  A. All farms require storage of feed, bedding, and equipment. Hay should be stored in a barn or a shed. Feed should be kept out of weather conditions. Equipment will last longer if it is maintained and is protected from the weather.

33 What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  B. Traditional barns, pole buildings, and metal buildings provide the best protection for sheep. Buildings should be located on elevated, well-drained sites. These traditional buildings are sometimes built with three sides. The open side should face south, away from winds.  C. During lambing/kidding season, mothers should be kept in dry, draft-free pens. Depending on the weather/season, mothers can deliver outdoors in small shelters. During winter months, ewes/does should be brought indoors and should have lambing/ kidding pens with water, feeders, and heat lamps.

34 What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  D. Bedding provides comfort to animals in buildings. Numerous materials can be used for bedding: straw, dried cornstalks, corncobs, cottonseed hulls, wood shavings, and wood chips. Bedding should be kept clean and dry.  E. Some sheep and goat producers keep their animals outdoors all year. Sheep and goats benefit from the outdoor air and from an increase in exercise. Their fleece/coats stay cleaner.

35 What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  F. Confinement buildings are used in sheep and goat production. The use of these buildings allows the producer to raise larger flocks or herds. However, it also increases capital costs. Advantages of confinement buildings in the production of sheep and goats include the following: predator problems are decreased; internal parasite problems are reduced; foot rot is easier to control; automated feeding systems can be used; and market lambs can be fed in a controlled environment.  G. Fencing is important in sheep and goat production. Woven wire or barbed wire is used. It should be high enough so animals do not jump out and so predators cannot enter.

36 What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  H. Loading chutes are used in the production of sheep and goats. Chutes should be designed free of shadows, with smooth, solid sides. Entry points in a chute system should funnel animals. Sheep and goats prefer to be handled quietly and in a low-stress environment.  I. Waterers and feeders are very important pieces of equipment. They should be designed to meet the needs of a specific number of animals per pen.  J. Other equipment essential to sheep and goat production includes shearing equipment, hoof trimmers, rope halters, shovels, buckets, and heat lamps.

37 What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?  Statistics show the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production and the major export and import markets for the United States.  A. The highest sheep-producing states, based on 2009 figures, are the following: (1) Texas, (2) California, (3) Wyoming, (4) Colorado, (5) South Dakota, (6) Utah, (7) Oregon, (8) Montana, (9) Idaho, (10) Iowa.

38 What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?  The leading states based on total sheep operations in 2009 are the following: (1) Texas, (2) Iowa, (3) Pennsylvania, (4) Ohio, (5) Oregon.  The top wool-producing states, based on 2009 figures, are the following: (1) Texas, (2) Wyoming, (3) California, (4) Montana, (5) South Dakota.

39 What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?  B. The top sheep-producing nations, based on 2009 figures, are the following: (1) China, (2) Australia, (3) India, (4) Iran, (5) Sudan, (6) New Zealand, (7) United Kingdom, (8) Pakistan, (9) Turkey, (10) South Africa.  The top five wool-producing nations, based on 2009 figures, are the following: (1) Australia, (2) China, (3) New Zealand, (4) Eastern Europe, (5) Argentina.

40 What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?  C. The U.S. goat industry is composed of milk, meat, and mohair operations.  1. Dairy goats are in every state. The leading dairy goat states are (1) Wisconsin, (2) California, (3) Texas, (4) Iowa, (5) Pennsylvania, (6) New York, (7) Missouri, (8) New England, (9) Ohio, (10) Indiana.  2. Meat goats have gained popularity recently. Meat goat farms are located throughout the country.  3. Mohair is a versatile fabric for warm and cold weather made from the hair of Angora goats. The leading states for Mohair production are Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

41 What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?  D. The United States exports about 2 percent of its lamb and mutton. Most U.S. mutton exports are to Mexico.  E. The United States imports more than 50 percent of the dairy goat cheese products it uses and consumes. Most dairy goat cheese imports are from France.

42 How does the sheep and goat industry affect the economy?  Compared with the beef, dairy, and swine industries, the sheep and goat industry is relatively small in terms of production numbers and its overall impact on the economy.  On the other hand, the sheep and goat industry tries to increase sales in specialty markets.  A. The sheep industry  1. The sheep industry has significantly changed in the past several years from wool to meat production.  2. The demand for lamb and mutton remains steady and shows little change in preferences. Traditionally, U.S. citizens have not consumed lamb regularly, as they do beef, pork, and poultry products.

43 How does the sheep and goat industry affect the economy?  3. The wool industry in the United States has changed because many wool mills have closed or have moved to other countries. This allows for export markets to increase slightly for wool and wool products.  4. The challenges for the sheep industry and American lamb products depend on the adoption of new technologies by producers, marketing improvements, research development, and perfection of efficiency at every stage of sheep production.

44 How does the sheep and goat industry affect the economy?  B. The goat industry  1. Dairy goat milk and cheese see a steady growth in consumer demand as people become more aware of the higher protein and lower cholesterol levels in goat products versus dairy cow products. Dairy goat producers market their products primarily through direct markets, farmers’ markets, and Internet sales. They also sell them directly to retail stores and restaurants. Goat milk can be used to make cheese known as chevre.  2. Meat goats are marketed through harvest facilities, auctions, and on-farm sites to private buyers. Meat goats are sold based on their size and age. An Easter kid is a noncastrated meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds that is usually sold seasonally to ethnic markets. Cabrito is the meat from a noncastrated milk-raised kid weighing 25 to 40 pounds. Technically, chevon is the meat from a goat of any age or size.

45 How does the sheep and goat industry affect the economy?  3. As Hispanic and Asian populations continue to rise in the United States, so will the preference for goat meat. Historically, these populations have preferred goat meat in their diets. Faith-based populations have also increased in the United States, creating a greater demand for goat meat. Goat meat is not generally available at grocery stores or supermarkets. It is sold at ethnic markets and in specialty stores.  4. Great potential exists for the goat industry in the United States as ethnic populations continue to increase. Small goat farms have the greatest opportunity for growth as the demand in metropolitan areas increases. Goat meat offers a healthy choice to meet the demands of health-conscious people. Industry groups must educate consumers and producers and increase marketing strategies. Other challenges of the goat industry relate to the price and availability of the meat.

46 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  Several common parasites and diseases can affect sheep and goats.  Good management systems and prevention programs can control these.  A. External parasites attack sheep and goats. Lice, horn flies, stable flies, ticks, blowflies, mange mites, and mosquitoes are common external parasites. Symptoms are bites, scabs, and sores on the hide. Pesticides sprayed around the pen or directly on the animal can serve as treatment. Good sanitation and sound management practices are preventive measures.

47 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  B. Internal parasites can live in sheep and goats for a long time and may interfere with nutrients, cause diarrhea, and result in poor performance. Common internal parasites are lungworms, stomach and intestinal worms, liver flukes, and coccidia. A good, sound worming program is necessary for successful production.  C. Diseases can drastically affect sheep and goats. Veterinarians help producers manage flock or herd health.

48 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  1. Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is very common among growing lambs and kids. Because large amounts of feed are ingested, intestinal bacteria undergo rapid growth and release a toxin. Sudden death is usual in sheep and goats. Single lambs are more frequently affected than twins. Feeder lambs can be susceptible once they are placed on heavy rations of grain or pasture. A common treatment is to remove all concentrates from the ration and to feed solely roughages. The animals should be vaccinated, and the all-roughage ration should be continued until they have fully recovered. Preventive practices include a vaccination program, good management, and proper feeding.

49 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  2. Foot rot thrives in muddy areas where air is poorly circulated. Foot rot is caused by bacteria. Signs include a foul odor and a grayish, cheesy discharge, with lameness and intense pain. Vaccination is available to treat foot rot, or the rotten area can be trimmed away and the foot treated with 10 to 30 percent copper sulfate. Prevention of foot rot includes proper trimming of feet, keeping muddy pastures drained, and using a foot bath.  3. Contagious ecthyma, or sore mouth, is a highly contagious disease. Sores/scabs appear on the lips and mouth. Humans are susceptible to this disease. When applying antibiotic ointments as a treatment, the producer should wear gloves. Treatment should be applied until all sores are dried up. A vaccination program is a valuable tool in preventing the disease.

50 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  4. Bluetongue is caused by a virus and is transmitted by gnats. Commonly, gnats will infect sheared sheep during warm weather. Signs of bluetongue are fever, depression, nasal discharge, and loss of appetite. The lips become swollen. There is no treatment for the bluetongue virus. Prevention should include vaccination at shearing time.

51 What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?  5. Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder. Signs include fever, depression, decreased milk production, abnormal milk, hardening or sensitivity of the udder, and loss of appetite. Sometimes signs are not visible. Bacteria can spread through dirty lots and bedding. Several types of bacteria can cause mastitis. Controlling mastitis requires cleaning and controlling the environment. Treatments are sensitive to the severity of each case and may include antibiotics. Ewes or does should be moved to individual pens, and a veterinarian should be contacted.

52 Review  What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?  What are the common breeds of sheep, and how do they differ?  What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production?

53 Review  What facilities and equipment are required in sheep and goat production?  What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?

54 Review  How does the sheep and goat industry affect the economy?  What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?


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