Presentation on theme: "From Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China"— Presentation transcript:
1From Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China India and China, 600 – 1600 IIFrom Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China
2Chinese Dynasties Qin 221–206 BCE Han 206 BCE – 220 CE Three Kingdoms 220 – 280Jin – 420Southern andNorthern Dynasties 420–589Sui –618Tang –907
3Tang Dynasty Began with Li Shimin in 618. Continued to expand China’s reach into Central Asia, Korea, and Vietnam.Cultural influence will spread to Japan as well.China encounters the West when the Arab Empire reached Southwest Asia.Sasanian Persians fled the Arab expansion, settling in Chang’an.Major Chinese cities had neighborhoods for foreign traders.JewsNestorian ChristiansZoroastriansHindusJainsMuslimsChang’an the largest city in world the seventh century ,000,000 people
5Tang DynastyBureaucratic reform included the introduction of the examination system.Men had to pass three levels of exams on Confucian, Buddhist, and Daoist texts.Open to all men except merchants, artisans, and criminals.
6Tang China prosperous, but . . . Northern China was agriculturally less productive than the south and thus less financially viable.Chang’an too large and isolated from the rest of China.Tang lost power on the Silk Road to encroaching Arabs.Rebellions broke out in:ManchuriaKoreaYunnanTang China itself.Because of expenses imperial government seized Buddhist lands in 845.
9Tea known in China since 900 BCE Common drink under the Qin Tang China one of the most cosmopolitan of empires and had a diverse commerce.TeaSilkTea known in China since 900 BCECommon drink under the QinBecomes widely popular under the TangSecond most widely consumed beverage in the world after water.
15Sold by Christies London July 8, 1999: $2.4 million Tabriz Medallion Carpet, North West Persia, 16th Century 21 ft. 8 in. x 11 ft. 9 in.Sold by Christies London July 8, 1999: $2.4 million
16Empress Wu Zetain, r. 684–705, ruled as empress dowager for her son. Tang women experienced both greater restrictions and more opportunities.Empress Wu Zetain, r. 684–705, ruled as empress dowager for her son.Declared Buddhism the state religion.Created a new Zhou dynasty and proclaimed herself the Buddhist “Divine Empress who Rules the World.”Backlash against her rule and Buddhism meant she was the last woman to rule China until the nineteenth century.
17“They have in China a very fine clay with which they make vases which are as transparent as glass; water is seen through them. The vases are made of clay.”Arab merchant, 851
25Du Fu (712–770)“To My Retired Friend Wei” “It is almost as hard for friends to meet As for the morning and evening stars. Tonight then is a rare event, Joining, in the candlelight, Two men who were young not long ago But now are turning grey at the temples. To find that half our friends are dead Shocks us, burns our hearts with grief ”
26Li Bao (Li Bai)“Drinking Alone by Moonlight” “A pot of wine, under the flowering trees; I drink alone, for no friend is near raising my cup I beckon the bright moon, for her, together with my shadow, will make three people ”
27Wang Wei ( )“One-Hearted” “When those red beans come in springtime, Flushing on your southland branches, Take home an armful, for my sake, As a symbol of our love.”
28Song Dynasty (960 – 1279)Continued Tang emphasis on a merit-based central government.Bureaucracy became too unwieldy.Had to be supported by onerous taxes.Song economic burden increased by of loss of northern lands and Silk Road.Song China more southern and urban than previous dynasties.Internal trade helped by:Creation of paper moneyMore coinsLess usuryWell maintained roads and canals.
30Temujin - Genghis Khan (c. 1162 – 1267) Created the Mongol Empire by uniting Mongol tribes.Superior horsemenArchers
31Kublai Khan completed the conquest of the Song. Created the Yuan DynastyLinked China to larger Mongol world.In China Mongols assimilated to Chinese culture.Mongol conquests spread Chinese technology throughout Eurasia.Yuan Dynasty ended in 1368:Bubonic plagueInternal rebellionsBreakdown of Mongol hegemony in Eurasia
32Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, a soldier and Buddhist monk,Became Emperor Hongwu.
33Moved capital to Beijing to protect it from invaders. HongwuReinstated Confucian bureaucracy andTraditional Chinese culture.Created the Grand Secretariat in 1382, as advisors to the emperor.Moved capital to Beijing to protect it from invaders.
35Population grew to 150 million by 1600. Population rebounded in China with the arrival of food crops from America.PotatoesCornPeanutsPopulation grew to 150 million by 1600.
36The Expedition of Zheng He Emperor Yongle ( ) ordered the expedition1405 to 1433.Zheng Heeunuchwas a friend and confidant of the emperor.in the emperor’s inner circle.Largest fleet in world history until the twentieth century.Approximately 30,000 menSought to establish trade contacts throughout the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Southeast Asia.
3862 “treasure ships”190 smaller shipsDebate about why China didn’t continue.
39Wang Anshi (1021 – 1086)"The state should take the entire management of commerce, industry, and agriculture into its own hands, with a view to succoring the working classes and preventing them from being ground into the dust by the rich."
40The baojia System. Village families grouped in 10’s. One family selected as the group leader.Leadership of this bao rotated.Ten responsible families were gathered, and a member chosen to be responsible for 100 households, and so on.Worked with the magistrate to prevent rebellions.
42Imperial Civil Service Palace ExaminationsNational ExaminationsProvincial ExaminationsCounty ExaminationsNineGrades
43Imperial Examinations First Form Scholastic artsMusicArithmeticWritingKnowledge of the rituals and ceremoniespublicPrivateMilitary artsArcheryHorsemanship
44Imperial Examinations Sui Dynasty additions (600’s) "Five Studies“Military strategyCivil lawRevenue and taxationAgriculture and geographyThe Confucian classicsImperial bureaucracy takes its full form in the Tang Dynasty.
45Village Leadership “Scholar-gentry class.” Had to obtain at least the shengyuanOpen to all classes.Most scholar-gentries came from the wealthy.Expected to present a model of moral behavior.
46District Magistrate Lowest level of bureaucratic office. Training ground for higher levels of service.Managed local governmentcollecting taxespublic orderpresiding over ceremoniesconducting examssetting a moral example.To prevent abuses, he had to write reports and was monitored.
51Tang Dynasty perfects porcelain. Not duplicated in Europe until early 1700’s
52Neo-Confucian synthesis . . . . . . retained core of Confucian ethical teachings with Buddhist and Daoist speculative philosophy.Zhu Xi (1130 – 1200) encouraged full exploration of the physical world as necessary to understand one’s place in the Supreme Ultimate.The basis of the Chinese world view until the 20th Century.