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AS level Psychology The Core studies. S J Gould (1982) n A Nation Of Morons? n The misuse of IQ tests.

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Presentation on theme: "AS level Psychology The Core studies. S J Gould (1982) n A Nation Of Morons? n The misuse of IQ tests."— Presentation transcript:

1 AS level Psychology The Core studies

2 S J Gould (1982) n A Nation Of Morons? n The misuse of IQ tests

3 Some background…. n Intelligence is a controversial subject n What is intelligence? n Class suggestions

4 Some background…. n Two questions that create controversy… n Is INTELLIGENCE inherited? n (The nature / nurture debate) n Can IQ be measured?

5 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n His book - The mismeasure of man showed how these questions can have large social consequences showed how these questions can have large social consequences

6 The History of IQ testing n First IQ tests developed by Alfred Binet n (France) n These were developed to identify children who needed special education - n Binet believed that IQ could be increased by education

7 The history of IQ testing n Early IQ tests gave estimate of childrens MENTAL age by comparing their performance on various tasks with performance of children at various ages

8 The history of IQ testing n calculated as n IQ = Mental Age Chronological age x 100 Chronological age x 100 Nowadays NORM referenced.. that is the average performance of a group is calculated, then individual comparison Nowadays NORM referenced.. that is the average performance of a group is calculated, then individual comparison

9 IQ testing in the USA n In the USA strong supporters of IQ testing were scientists who believed that IQ is MAINLY genetic, and that society should breed a superior group of people n (This is called eugenics)

10 IQ testing in the USA n Lewis Terman n (Professor of psychology) n ( Stanford University) n If we would preserve our state for a class of people worthy to possess it, we must, as far as possible, prevent the propagation of mental degenerates

11 IQ testing in the USA n This means that scientists should identify the useless and stupid and find some way of preventing them having children n S J Goulds article - n The mismeasure of man

12 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n The place - The USA n The time - the outbreak of the great war - (World War 1: ) n Robert Yerkes - psychologist n persuaded the US military n to administer IQ tests to 1.75 million army recruits

13 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Three types of tests n The Army Alpha - a written test taken by literate recruits n eight parts - fill in the missing number - unscramble a sentence, etc n some examples n Washington is to Adams as first is to n Crisco is a: patent medicine, disinfectant, toothpaste, food product

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15 S J Gould - A nation of morons n The Army Beta - a pictorial test n for the illiterate or those who failed the Alpha n this test had 7 parts - n including picture completion tasks

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22 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n The third test was a spoken test - n supposed to be administered to those who failed the Alpha and the Beta

23 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n YERKES said that: n These tests measure n NATIVE INTELLECTUAL ABILITY n in other words intelligence which was unaffected by culture or educational opportunities

24 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Gould reports many problems in the administration of the tests n I lliterate men were allocated to the Alpha n The queues for the Beta became so long that some men were reallocated to the Alpha n Many who failed the Alpha were never recalled

25 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n The BETA test still required men to use pencils and paper - and many had never been educated at all n Gould suggests that all the results should be viewed with scepticism n (doubt and disbelief)

26 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n However the results were used by the army and had great impact - mental testing became….. n scientifically established n by 1921 commercial and educational establishments were using the tests

27 The creation of 3 so called facts n FACT 1 n The average mental age of white American adults stood at 13 … this is just above the level of moronity

28 The creation of 3 so called facts n Fact 2 n It was possible to grade European immigrants by their country of origin n The fair people of Northern & Western Europe higher than the Slavs of Eastern Europe who were higher than dark people of southern Europe

29 The creation of 3 so called facts n Fact 3 n Black people scored lowest of all n These facts were used to provide a genetic explanation for the differences

30 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Carl Brigham (Yerkes colleague) n Explained the differences in terms of racial superiority n we notice the Einsteins of the world BECAUSE they are exceptional for their Jewish race

31 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n However this arguments is opposed by 2 arguments n FIRSTLY n Immigration from different parts of Europe took place at different times n The most recent immigrants scored worse on the written tests.. If native IQ was being measured written English should have NO effect

32 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n SECONDLY n Test scores rose with length of stay in the USA evidencing a cultural bias n Those who had been in the USA longer were more familiar with American customs & products

33 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Brigham n argued that it was a sign of intelligence to emigrate to the USA and that the brightest came sooner!! n Later immigrants were progressively more stupid

34 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Despite the evidence IQ tests took hold n 1924 US Congress passed the Immigration Restriction Act n The Act set quotas for immigration to the US based on figures 30 years earlier when immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe was low

35 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Gould called this - n A victory for scientific racism n During the next 20 years conditions in eastern Europe worsened for Slavs and Jews n (The Nazi years)

36 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Gould estimates that n Immigration quotas barred up to 6 million people from entering the USA

37 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n There is STILL n No good evidence to suggest that IQ differences are the result of genetic differences

38 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n There is STILL n No clear operational definition of intelligence n Both race and IQ are political rather than biological facts n (Socially constructed)

39 S J Gould - A Nation of Morons n Things to do - n Identify some cultural or educational bias in the Beta test items on your example n in the Alpha test n Washington is to Adams as first is to n What is the answer and why is this culturally biased?

40 S J Gould (1982) n What about our little IQ test? n Class discussion n Now do the short answer questions

41 S J Gould (1982) n METHODOLOGY? n This was a review article taken from a book entitled - n The Mismeasure of Man

42 S J Gould - A nation of Morons THE END THE END


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