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Presentation on theme: "Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligence

2 Intelligence Wechsler defined it as the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to a new situation Intelligence is reflected in effective, rational, and goal-directed behavior. Is intelligence one thing or are there multiple intelligences? Play “Pros and Cons of Intelligence Tests” (6:29) Segment #17 from Psychology: The Human Experience. This is a good review of what you’ve read and highlights how IQ tests have been used in a variety of ways by the government and other agencies.

3 Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence tests try to measure general mental abilities not “book smarts” or knowledge in a specific area

4 Intelligence Testing: Alfred Binet

5 Binet’s “Mental Age” Hired by the French government to develop a test to determine students who had special needs. His test focused on mental abilities like memory, attention, and the ability to understand similarities and differences NOT math and reading. Arranged questions in order of difficulty with simplest first. Compared student’s performance with those of other kids their age. Developed the term, “mental age” which meant the age of the child’s mental abilities. A seven year old operating at a 9 year old’s level would have a mental age of 9. Binet never meant for his test to be used to measure intelligence. He only wanted to identify kids with special needs. He felt intelligence was too complex to capture in a test. Hockenbury Discovering psy p257

6 Alfred Binet Intelligence—collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely related to one another Assumed children’s intellectual abilities grew every year Intelligence is nurtured Developer of the first test to classify children’s abilities using the concept of mental age. Used to predict academic performance Did not rank “normal” students according to the scores

7 Intelligence Testing: Lewis Terman (1877-1956)

8 Lewis Terman Terman believed that IQ was a fixed, inborn characteristic and would equate in to school success (this against what Binet believed). Terman did a longitudinal study of children whose average IQ scores were 150 (140 is genius level). Found that intelligence alone is not enough to be a success. Only those that had personality factors that were more goal-oriented, greater perseverance and self-confidence. Essentially, those with a willingness to work hard were successful. Intelligence is no guarantee of success in professional life.

9 Lewis Terman & William Stern Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Intelligence Quotient - The number that results from Terman and Stern’s formula for computing the level of a person’s intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=Intelligence Quotient MA=Mental Age CA=Chronological Age A score of 100 would be considered average Formula has been replaced with modern versions

10 Calculating Intelligence
For an average 7 yr old… MA=7 CA=7 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(7/7)*100 IQ=1*100 IQ=100 (average)

11 Calculating Intelligence
For an average 11 yr old… MA=11 CA=11 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(11/11)*100 IQ=1*100 IQ=100

12 Calculating Intelligence
For an above average 10 yr old… MA=12 CA=10 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(12/10)*100 IQ=1.2*100 IQ=120

13 Calculating Intelligence
For a below average 8 yr old… MA=6 CA=8 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(6/8)*100 IQ=.75*100 IQ=75

14 Calculating Intelligence
A glitch… MA levels off at about 18 Average 18 yr old MA=18 CA=18 IQ=(18/18)*100 IQ=(1/1)*100=100 Average 36 yr old MA=18 CA=36 IQ=(18/36)*100 IQ=(1/2)*100=50

15 Problems with Intelligence Testing
Army Alpha written test and the Army Beta oral test used in WWI to test the IQ of recruits and draftees. These later used by immigration and resulted in certain nationalities being labeled as “unfit” resulting in quotas.

16 How Much Stock can we put into IQ Scores?
Not too much. To regard an abstract concept as if it were a real, concrete thing is called reification.

17 Modern Intelligence Tests:
Weschsler Test Group Tests

18 David Wechsler ( ) Developed the Wechsler intelligence scales which included: Different tests for different age groups Separate verbal and nonverbal scores Subtests and subtest scores

19 The Wechsler tests Modeled after Binet’s but improved it in two ways.
Designed test for both adults and children. WISC-IV = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children WAIS-IV = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Provided scores in 11 different subtests for 11 abilities which were grouped to show a performance and verbal score. It showed an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in a variety of areas.

20 The Subtests of the Wechsler Test and how they’re used
Verbal score – obtained from subtests in vocab, comprehension, knowledge and general info. Performance score – obtained by nonverbal subtests like identifying the missing part in a picture, arranging pictures into a story, arranging blocks to match a pattern. Discrepancies in certain scores (high score in one area with a low score in another area can indicate a learning disability). It can also mean there was a cultural disadvantage for the person taking the test. IQ Global score determined by comparing to the average score of others in your same general age group rather than by mental age. Average score is fixed for each age group at Average or 2/3 of all scores fall between

21 Subtests of Wechsler

22 Testing Spatial Reasoning



25 Test Construction: Reliability and Validity

26 Types of Tests Achievement test—designed to measure level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area classroom tests at the end of a unit Aptitude test—designed to measure capability to benefit from education or training ACT and SAT Interest test—measures self-reported vocational interests and skills PLAN Test

27 Qualities of Good Tests
Standardized—administered to large groups of people under uniform conditions to establish norms Reliable—ability to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions Valid—ability to measure what the test is intended to measure

28 Standardized Scoring of Wechsler Tests
All raw scores converted to standardized scores Normal distribution Mean of 100 Standard deviation of 15 figure taken from CD-ROM, Gray text, pg. 363, figure 10.5

29 Types of Reliability Test-retest reliability - taking the same test and receiving a similar score Split-half - the score on one half of a test’s questions is similar to the score on the other half Scorer reliability – the score of the test should be similar no matter which scorer is scoring the test

30 What do IQ tests measure about your mind?
Mental speed and span of working memory typically use a digit span test to measure this more recent studies find significant correlations between reaction times and IQ scores Why is this important? mental quickness may expand capacity of working memory I have already used digit span tests in my lectures during the memory chapter, but an instructor who has not done so may choose to include a demonstration of digit span/working memory here.

31 Test Validity The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to Does an achievement test accurately measure accomplishments? Does an aptitude test accurately measure the person’s future performance? One needs to know the purpose of the test

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