2 IntelligenceWechsler defined it as the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environmentThe ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to a new situationIntelligence is reflected in effective, rational, and goal-directed behavior.Is intelligence one thing or are there multiple intelligences?Play “Pros and Cons of Intelligence Tests” (6:29) Segment #17 from Psychology: The Human Experience.This is a good review of what you’ve read and highlights how IQ tests have been used in a variety of ways by the government and other agencies.
3 Measuring Intelligence Intelligence tests try to measure general mental abilities not “book smarts” or knowledge in a specific area
5 Binet’s “Mental Age”Hired by the French government to develop a test to determine students who had special needs.His test focused on mental abilities like memory, attention, and the ability to understand similarities and differences NOT math and reading.Arranged questions in order of difficulty with simplest first.Compared student’s performance with those of other kids their age.Developed the term, “mental age” which meant the age of the child’s mental abilities. A seven year old operating at a 9 year old’s level would have a mental age of 9.Binet never meant for his test to be used to measure intelligence. He only wanted to identify kids with special needs.He felt intelligence was too complex to capture in a test.Hockenbury Discovering psy p257
6 Alfred BinetIntelligence—collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely related to one anotherAssumed children’s intellectual abilities grew every yearIntelligence is nurturedDeveloper of the first test to classify children’s abilities using the concept of mental age. Used to predict academic performanceDid not rank “normal” students according to the scores
8 Lewis TermanTerman believed that IQ was a fixed, inborn characteristic and would equate in to school success (this against what Binet believed).Terman did a longitudinal study of children whose average IQ scores were 150 (140 is genius level).Found that intelligence alone is not enough to be a success.Only those that had personality factors that were more goal-oriented, greater perseverance and self-confidence.Essentially, those with a willingness to work hard were successful. Intelligence is no guarantee of success in professional life.
9 Lewis Terman & William Stern Stanford-Binet IQ Test Intelligence Quotient - The number that results from Terman and Stern’s formula for computing the level of a person’s intelligenceStanford-Binet Intelligence TestIQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=Intelligence QuotientMA=Mental AgeCA=Chronological AgeA score of 100 would be considered averageFormula has been replaced with modern versions
10 Calculating Intelligence For an average 7 yr old…MA=7CA=7IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(7/7)*100IQ=1*100IQ=100 (average)
11 Calculating Intelligence For an average 11 yr old…MA=11CA=11IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(11/11)*100IQ=1*100IQ=100
12 Calculating Intelligence For an above average 10 yr old…MA=12CA=10IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(12/10)*100IQ=1.2*100IQ=120
13 Calculating Intelligence For a below average 8 yr old…MA=6CA=8IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(6/8)*100IQ=.75*100IQ=75
14 Calculating Intelligence A glitch…MA levels off at about 18Average 18 yr oldMA=18CA=18IQ=(18/18)*100IQ=(1/1)*100=100Average 36 yr oldMA=18CA=36IQ=(18/36)*100IQ=(1/2)*100=50
15 Problems with Intelligence Testing Army Alpha written test and the Army Beta oral test used in WWI to test the IQ of recruits and draftees.These later used by immigration and resulted in certain nationalities being labeled as “unfit” resulting in quotas.
16 How Much Stock can we put into IQ Scores? Not too much.To regard an abstract concept as if it were a real, concrete thing is called reification.
17 Modern Intelligence Tests: Weschsler TestGroup Tests
18 David Wechsler ( )Developed the Wechsler intelligence scales which included:Different tests for different age groupsSeparate verbal and nonverbal scoresSubtests and subtest scores
19 The Wechsler tests Modeled after Binet’s but improved it in two ways. Designed test for both adults and children.WISC-IV = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for childrenWAIS-IV = Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleProvided scores in 11 different subtests for 11 abilities which were grouped to show a performance and verbal score.It showed an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in a variety of areas.
20 The Subtests of the Wechsler Test and how they’re used Verbal score – obtained from subtests in vocab, comprehension, knowledge and general info.Performance score – obtained by nonverbal subtests like identifying the missing part in a picture, arranging pictures into a story, arranging blocks to match a pattern.Discrepancies in certain scores (high score in one area with a low score in another area can indicate a learning disability). It can also mean there was a cultural disadvantage for the person taking the test.IQ Global score determined by comparing to the average score of others in your same general age group rather than by mental age. Average score is fixed for each age group at Average or 2/3 of all scores fall between
26 Types of TestsAchievement test—designed to measure level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular areaclassroom tests at the end of a unitAptitude test—designed to measure capability to benefit from education or trainingACT and SATInterest test—measures self-reported vocational interests and skillsPLAN Test
27 Qualities of Good Tests Standardized—administered to large groups of people under uniform conditions to establish normsReliable—ability to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditionsValid—ability to measure what the test is intended to measure
28 Standardized Scoring of Wechsler Tests All raw scores converted to standardized scoresNormal distributionMean of 100Standard deviation of 15figure taken from CD-ROM, Gray text, pg. 363, figure 10.5
29 Types of ReliabilityTest-retest reliability - taking the same test and receiving a similar scoreSplit-half - the score on one half of a test’s questions is similar to the score on the other halfScorer reliability – the score of the test should be similar no matter which scorer is scoring the test
30 What do IQ tests measure about your mind? Mental speed and span of working memorytypically use a digit span test to measure thismore recent studies find significant correlations between reaction times and IQ scoresWhy is this important?mental quickness may expand capacity of working memoryI have already used digit span tests in my lectures during the memory chapter, but an instructor who has not done so may choose to include a demonstration of digit span/working memory here.
31 Test ValidityThe extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose toDoes an achievement test accurately measure accomplishments?Does an aptitude test accurately measure the person’s future performance?One needs to know the purpose of the test