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Assessing Intelligence

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1 Assessing Intelligence
AP Psychology

2 Alfred Binet Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing Developed questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system.

3 Alfred Binet—Mental Age
Alfred Binet was the first to develop a test to classify children’s mental abilities- Did not test mastery of schoolwork or what they should know after a specific class, Rather a child’s mental abilities that included memory, attention, which he referred to as mental age (definition to follow).

4 Alfred Binet—Mental Age
There are certain mental abilities that a person should be able to perform at a specific age- this is referred to as mental age. This mental age described where a person should be intelligently. For example: a 9 year old should have a mental age of 9. If a child who is 11, but has a mental age of 5 would be considered or may have a disability

5 The Stanford-Binet Test and Intelligent Quotient
Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for use in the United States, which he called the Stanford-Binet test William Stern wrote the scoring criteria for the Stanford-Binet test through the development of the Intelligence quotient

6 Lewis Terman & William Stern Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=Intelligence Quotient MA=Mental Age CA=Chronological Age A score of 100 would be considered average

7 Calculating Intelligence
For an average 7 yr old… MA=7 CA=7 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(7/7)*100 IQ=1*100 IQ=100 (average)

8 Calculating Intelligence
For an average 11 yr old… MA=11 CA=11 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(11/11)*100 IQ=1*100 IQ=100

9 Calculating Intelligence
For an above average 10 yr old… MA=12 CA=10 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(12/10)*100 IQ=1.2*100 IQ=120

10 Calculating Intelligence
For a below average 8 yr old… MA=6 CA=8 IQ=(MA/CA)*100 IQ=(6/8)*100 IQ=.75*100 IQ=75

11 Calculating Intelligence
Formula has been replaced with modern versions A glitch… MA levels off at about 18x Average 18 yr old MA=18 CA=18 IQ=(18/18)*100 IQ=(1/1)*100=100 Average 36 yr old MA=18 CA=36 IQ=(18/36)*100 IQ=(1/2)*100=50

12 Intelligence Tests How is intelligence measured?

13 Intelligence Tests Binet-Simon scale Stanford-Binet scale
First test of intelligence, developed to identify children who might have difficulty in school Binet developed the concept of mental age in children Stanford-Binet scale L. M. Terman’s adaptation of the Binet-Simon scale Terman introduced the I.Q. score A score of 100 is considered average

14 Aptitude vs. Achievement
Aptitude Tests Achievement Tests Designed to make predictions about future performances An ACT test is considered an aptitude test because the score is used as a predictor for success in college Designed to reflect what a person has learned, or mastered A test you take in history would be an achievement test because it is assessing what you have learned in history

15 David Wechsler Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) And later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers.

16 The WAIS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the most widely used intelligence test in the United States The WAIS has 2 sets of tests, verbal scale and performance scale WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems.


18 Intelligence Tests Group Tests
Intelligence tests that can be given to large groups Advantages Quick scoring No examiner bias Easier to establish norms Disadvantages Less likely to detect someone who is ill or confused Might make people nervous Learning disabled children often perform worse

19 Intelligence Tests Performance tests Culture-fair tests
Tests that minimize the use of language Used to test very young children or people with retardation Also can be used to test those unfamiliar with English Culture-fair tests Tests designed to reduce cultural bias Minimize skills and values that vary from one culture to another

20 Test Construction How is test data analyzed?

21 Principles of test Construction
Normal Curve is a bell shaped curve that includes a normal distribution of scores- half above the average and half below the average with most scores falling right around the average- the mean

22 Flynn Effect In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect. What might be contributing to this?

23 Principles of test Construction
Mean is the average score median is score in the middle- the high point of the curve mode is the score or number that appears the most standard deviation is how the scores deviate or spread from the mean if the mean is 71 and a person scores a 4 then that score would have high, or great standard deviation


25 Principles of test Construction
Standardization is defining present scores through comparison to a group who previously took the test that is called the representative sample A teacher often compares present class scores to past scores to ensure students learning the material. For example if a class averaged 51 and the group who took the same test last year averaged 75, then the teacher may have not properly taught the material to the present group

26 Principles of test Construction
Reliability is the measure of giving a test multiple times and receiving similar scores each time the test is given A test is considered reliable if each time that test is given similar results are posted.

27 Principles of test Construction—Testing Reliability
Alternative form- giving alternatives of the same test If you took test form B, you should get the same score if you took form A test Split-half- calculating a score by dividing the test into different parts then comparing Comparing the odd and even questions would be an example of split-half reliability. Test-retest- giving the same test twice and then comparing the scores

28 Principles of test Construction
Validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure

29 Principles of test Construction—Testing Validity
Content validity- test measures the content it is supposed to measure If you are studying psychology, then you should take a psychology test- not a history test Construct validity- test measures a specific theory, or question Certain questions may be written to test if students are paying attention in class- based on lectures Predictive validity- test makes predictions about future performances Certain questions may be written to test whether students will do well on the following chapter

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