2 Alfred BinetAlfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testingDeveloped questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system.
3 Alfred Binet—Mental Age Alfred Binet was the first to develop a test to classify children’s mental abilities-Did not test mastery of schoolwork or what they should know after a specific class,Rather a child’s mental abilities that included memory, attention, which he referred to as mental age (definition to follow).
4 Alfred Binet—Mental Age There are certain mental abilities that a person should be able to perform at a specific age- this is referred to as mental age.This mental age described where a person should be intelligently.For example: a 9 year old should have a mental age of 9.If a child who is 11, but has a mental age of 5 would be considered or may have a disability
5 The Stanford-Binet Test and Intelligent Quotient Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for use in the United States, which he called the Stanford-Binet testWilliam Stern wrote the scoring criteria for the Stanford-Binet test through the development of the Intelligence quotient
6 Lewis Terman & William Stern Stanford-Binet IQ Test Stanford-Binet Intelligence TestIQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=Intelligence QuotientMA=Mental AgeCA=Chronological AgeA score of 100 would be considered average
7 Calculating Intelligence For an average 7 yr old…MA=7CA=7IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(7/7)*100IQ=1*100IQ=100 (average)
8 Calculating Intelligence For an average 11 yr old…MA=11CA=11IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(11/11)*100IQ=1*100IQ=100
9 Calculating Intelligence For an above average 10 yr old…MA=12CA=10IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(12/10)*100IQ=1.2*100IQ=120
10 Calculating Intelligence For a below average 8 yr old…MA=6CA=8IQ=(MA/CA)*100IQ=(6/8)*100IQ=.75*100IQ=75
11 Calculating Intelligence Formula has been replaced with modern versionsA glitch…MA levels off at about 18xAverage 18 yr oldMA=18CA=18IQ=(18/18)*100IQ=(1/1)*100=100Average 36 yr oldMA=18CA=36IQ=(18/36)*100IQ=(1/2)*100=50
12 Intelligence TestsHow is intelligence measured?
13 Intelligence Tests Binet-Simon scale Stanford-Binet scale First test of intelligence, developed to identify children who might have difficulty in schoolBinet developed the concept of mental age in childrenStanford-Binet scaleL. M. Terman’s adaptation of the Binet-Simon scaleTerman introduced the I.Q. scoreA score of 100 is considered average
14 Aptitude vs. Achievement Aptitude TestsAchievement TestsDesigned to make predictions about future performancesAn ACT test is considered an aptitude test because the score is used as a predictor for success in collegeDesigned to reflect what a person has learned, or masteredA test you take in history would be an achievement test because it is assessing what you have learned in history
15 David WechslerWechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)And later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers.
16 The WAISThe Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the most widely used intelligence test in the United StatesThe WAIS has 2 sets of tests, verbal scale and performance scaleWAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems.
18 Intelligence Tests Group Tests Intelligence tests that can be given to large groupsAdvantagesQuick scoringNo examiner biasEasier to establish normsDisadvantagesLess likely to detect someone who is ill or confusedMight make people nervousLearning disabled children often perform worse
19 Intelligence Tests Performance tests Culture-fair tests Tests that minimize the use of languageUsed to test very young children or people with retardationAlso can be used to test those unfamiliar with EnglishCulture-fair testsTests designed to reduce cultural biasMinimize skills and values that vary from one culture to another
21 Principles of test Construction Normal Curve is a bell shaped curve that includes a normal distribution of scores-half above the average and half below the averagewith most scores falling right around the average- the mean
22 Flynn EffectIn the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect.What might be contributing to this?
23 Principles of test Construction Mean is the average scoremedian is score in the middle- the high point of the curvemode is the score or number that appears the moststandard deviation is how the scores deviate or spread from the meanif the mean is 71 and a person scores a 4 then that score would have high, or great standard deviation
25 Principles of test Construction Standardization is defining present scores through comparison to a group who previously took the test that is called the representative sampleA teacher often compares present class scores to past scores to ensure students learning the material.For example if a class averaged 51 and the group who took the same test last year averaged 75, then the teacher may have not properly taught the material to the present group
26 Principles of test Construction Reliability is the measure of giving a test multiple times and receiving similar scores each time the test is givenA test is considered reliable if each time that test is given similar results are posted.
27 Principles of test Construction—Testing Reliability Alternative form- giving alternatives of the same testIf you took test form B, you should get the same score if you took form A testSplit-half- calculating a score by dividing the test into different parts then comparingComparing the odd and even questions would be an example of split-half reliability.Test-retest- giving the same test twice and then comparing the scores
28 Principles of test Construction Validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure
29 Principles of test Construction—Testing Validity Content validity- test measures the content it is supposed to measureIf you are studying psychology, then you should take a psychology test- not a history testConstruct validity- test measures a specific theory, or questionCertain questions may be written to test if students are paying attention in class- based on lecturesPredictive validity- test makes predictions about future performancesCertain questions may be written to test whether students will do well on the following chapter