2Question WordsWhat...? ¿Qué...? Where...? ¿Dónde...? When...? ¿Cuándo...? Who...? ¿Quién...? Whose...? ¿De quién...? How...? ¿Cómo...? Why...? ¿Por qué...? Which...? ¿Cuál...? How much ..? ¿Cuánto…? How many …? ¿Cuantos …?
3Question WordsWho y what pueden actuar como objeto o como sujeto. Si actúan como sujeto no utilizarán auxiliar (do,will,be)Si actúan como objeto deberán preguntar con el auxiliar.cuando who y what actúan como objetoQuestion word + Auxilar + Sujeto + verbo en infinitivocuando who y what actúan como sujetoQuestion word +verbo + objeto“generalmente ponemos las preposiciones al final de las oraciones interrogativas”
4Exercise Put the correct question word. 1. _______ much are the patotoes? One dollar.2. _______ can I do for you? I want two white T-shirts.3. _______ can I get a newspaper? At Park street.4. _______ is your best friend? It´s paul.5. _______ does Lisa live? In Boston.6. _______ colour is your new car? It´s white.7. _______ do you collect? Stickers.8. _______ can help me? I can.9. _______ about some grapes? No, thanks.10. _______ was your first word as a baby? Mama.
5Question Tagspreguntas que decimos al final de una oración (afirmativa o negativa) cuando queremos que nuestro interlocutor muestre acuerdo o desacuerdo, o bien para preguntar lo que no sabemos.Para formar la "question tag" utilizamos los verbos auxiliares (be, have, do, will, would, can could, etc…) y a continuación el pronombre personal sujeto.El auxiliar debe concordar con el verbo de la oración principal, es decir, si el verbo está en pasado, el auxiliar irá también en pasado.En oraciones afirmativas, la question tag va en negativa.
6Question Tags exceptions Con Iam, hacemos la question tag,aren´t I?Cuando en la oración principal usamos palabras negativas como “nothing”, “no one”, “nobody”, “no” “never” “hardly” “scarcely” and “little” la question tag deberá ser afirmativa.Con “somebody” “anybody”, “nobody” “someone” “anyone”, “no-one”“everbody” “anyone”, la question tag llevará el auxiliar en plural y el pronombre sujeto "they", aunque en la oración el verbo esté en singular.Con el imperativo En negativo ponemos la question tag "will you"? Y la orden se convierte en una petición cortés: - Don't be late, will you? No llegues tarde, ¿vale? En afirmativo ponemos la question tag "won't you?", y la orden se convierte en invitación: -Have another piece of cake, won't you? Tómate otro trozo de pastel, ¿no?
7Exercise You are a student, are you? aren't you? Lisa is going to the party, doesn't she? isn't she?She can drive, can't she? can she?There aren't enough chairs for everyone, are there? is there?That car is too expensive, isn't it? isn't that?The bus stops here, doesn't it? isn't it?Larry wasn't at home yesterday, is he? was he?She doesn't agree with you, does she? do you?
8ExerciseJack is just going out. You want him to get some stamps for you. ASK HIM ... Jack, you couldn't __________________________________________________ You're looking for Ann. Perhaps Alan knows where she is. ASK HIM ... Alan, you__________________________________________________________You need some paper. Perhaps Tom has some. ASK HIM ... Tom,_____________________________________________________________ Ann has a car, and you don't want to walk home. You want her to give you a lift. ASK HER ... Ann,_____________________________________________________________ You're looking for your purse. Perhaps Liz has seen it. ASK HER ... _________________________________________________________________
9Do and Make"Do" y "make" son dos verbos que se confunden frecuentemente en inglés. Ambos se pueden traducir como "hacer", pero hay algunas diferencias en su significado. En general, "do" considera más la acción, mientras que con "make" nos referimos más al resultado de la acción.
10DoSe usa "do" para acciones, actividades, y trabajos. Se utiliza en un sentido amplio, como de "realizar". En general, estas acciones y actividades no producen un objeto físico.Ejemplos:do homeworkdo a jobdo the dishesdo houseworkdo exerciseSe utiliza "do" cuando hablamos de cosas en general, cuando no decimos exactamente qué actividad. En este sentido, se utiliza mucho con los pronombres indefinidos como "something", "anything", "nothing", etc.What are you doing today? I'm not doing anything. (¿Qué haces hoy? No hago nada.)He's always doing nice things for his girlfriend. (Siempre hace cosas buenas para su novia.)Are you doing anything important right now? (¿Haces algo importante ahora mismo?)
11MakeSe utiliza "make" en el sentido de "fabricar", "elaborar" o "crear". Se usa para actividades en que se crea algo que se puede tocar, un objeto físico.Ejemplos:make breakfast/lunch/dinnermake a dressmake furniture
12Do, Expressions do good (hacer el bien) do right (hacer bien) do wrong (hacer mal)do damage (hacer daño)do one's best (hacer lo posible)do a favor (hacer un favor)do justice (hacer justicia)do research (investigar)do harm (hacer daño)do business (hacer negocios)do one's hair (arreglarse el pelo)do wonders (hacer maravillas)
13Make, Expressions make a decision (tomar una decisión) make [a] noise (hacer [un] ruido)make a difference (hacer diferencias/marcar la [una] diferencia)make peace (firmar la paz)make friends (hacer amigos)make a choice (hacer una elección)make war (hacer la guerra)make love (hacer el amor)make a phone call (hacer una llamada)make a fire (encender un fuego)make a plan (trazar/hacer un plan)make an impression (causar impresión)make an exception (hacer una excepción)make arrangements (hacer preparativos)make a mess (hacer un lio)make a confession (hacer una confesión)make a point (dar un argumento concreto)make an appointment (pedir cita/hora, concertar una cita)make a discovery (hacer un descubrimiento)make a promise (hacer una promesa)make a mistake (cometer un errormake a change (hacer un cambio)make a suggestion (hacer una sugerencia)make money (ganar dinero)make an excuse (dar una excusa)make amends (reparar el daño [causado al alguien]//desagraviar a)make time (encontrar tiempo)make the bed (hacer la cama)make an effort (hacer un esfuerzo)make a comment (hacer un comentario)make an attempt (hacer un intento)make a statement (hacer una declaración/afirmación)make fun of (reírse/burlarse de)make progress (hacer progresos)make a speech (pronunciar/hacer un discurso)make an offer (hacer una oferta)
14Zero ConditionalWhen we talk about things that are generally or always true.We use: If/When/Unless + present form + present simple or imperative.Note that we are not talking about a specific event but something which is generally true.In the condition clause, we can use a variety of present forms. In the result clause, there can only be the present simple or imperative.Notice that 'unless' means the same as 'if not'.
15Zero Conditional Examples: Unless he asks you politely, refuse to do any more work on the project.Unless prices are rising, it's not a good investment.Unless you've been there yourself, you don't really understand how fantastic it is.If you visit London, go on the London Eye.If unemployment is rising, people tend to stay in their present jobs.If you've done that, go and have a coffee.When you go on holiday, take plenty of sun cream. It'll be very hot.When I'm concentrating, please don't make so much noise.When I've finished an article, I always ask Kate to read it through.
16Zero ConditionalPeople (get) fat, if they (eat) junk food.If a person (practise) sports, he or she always (feel) good.If the sun (rise) high, it (become) very hot. Plants (die), if it (do) not rain.If children (not/get) enough sleep at night, they (get) tired all day.
17Zero Conditional(I / wake up late / I / be late for work) ____________________________________ (my husband / cook / he / burn the food) (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke) (children / not eat well / they / not be healthy) (you / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock) (I / feel good the next day / I / go to bed early) (lots of people / come / Jenny / have a party) (she / buy expensive clothes / she / go shopping) (my daughter / pass her exams / she / work hard) (David / be sick / he / drink milk)
18if + present simple, ... will + infinitive First ConditionalThe first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the future simple in the other clause:if + present simple, ... will + infinitiveIt's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily come true.If it rains, I won't go to the park.If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight.If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes.She'll be late if the train is delayed.She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.If I see her, I'll tell her.Sometimes, we use shall, can, or may instead of will, for example: If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight.
19First ConditionalWe will (pass) the examination if we study hard. If you (go) to see this film, you will have a good time. If he (play) sport, he will live longer. She (not be) an architect if she doesn’t go to university. They (ring) us if we give them our phone number. If we (not solve) the problem, we won’t get the prize. If we (not go) now, we (miss) the bus. _______________________________________ You (be) tired if you (not sleep). ________________________________________ If the Spanish team (get) to the final match, they (be) the World Champions. ___________________________________________________ If you (help) me, I (give) you a lot of money. _____________________________________________________ If we (sing) some carols, they (be) happy. ______________________________________________________
20First Conditional1. If I __________ my homework now, I ________________ go out later.NOT DO NOT BE ABLE TO2. Charlie _____________ your chips if you _____________ them.EAT NOT FINISH3. I ______________ in my office if she _____________ anything.BE NEED4. You _________ there on time if you ____________ immediately.NOT GET NOT LEAVE5. If we ___________ to Sarah’s party, we __________ a good time.GO HAVE6. If Kate _____________ to America I _____________ her.GO MISS
21if + past simple, ...would + infinitive Second ConditionalThe second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the infinitive:if + past simple, ...would + infinitiveWe can use 'were' instead of 'was' with 'I' and 'he/she/it'.An imaginary result in a situation that does not existFirst, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be true. Maybe I'm imagining some dream for example.If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won't win the lottery)If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.She would travel all over the world if she were rich.She would pass the exam if she ever studied.(She never studies, so this won't happen)Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible, because it's not true. Is that clear? Have a look at the examples:If I had his number, I would call him. (I don't have his number now, so it's impossible for me to call him).If I were you, I wouldn't go out with that man.If I were president, I would put you in Jail
22Second Conditional 1) If I (be) you, I (get) a new job. 2) If he (be) younger, he (travel) more.3) If we (not/be) friends, I (be) angry with you4) If I (have) enough money, I (buy) a big house.5) If she ___________ (not/be) always so late, she ___________ (be) promoted.6) If we ___________ (win) the lottery, we ___________ (travel) the world.7) If you ___________ (have) a better job, we ___________ (be) able to buy a new car.8) If I ___________ (speak) perfect English, I ___________ (have) a good job.9) If we ___________ (live) in Mexico, I ___________ (speak) Spanish.10) If ___________ (pass) the exam, she ___________ (be) able to enter university.
23Second Conditional1. If I won the lottery, If I were a superhero, 3. If my parents were more understanding, 4. If I could travel anywhere in the world, 5. If I had time, Exchange information with a partner. What would you do if…..? What could you do if…?
24if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle Third Conditional Past perfect after 'if' and then 'would have' and the Past participle in the second part of the sentence:if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participleIt talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of this situation.If she had studied, she would have passed the exam (but, really we know she didn't study and so she didn't pass)If I hadn't eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt sick (but I did eat a lot, and so I did feel sick).If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the planeShe wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlierShe would have become a teacher if she had gone to universityHe would have been on time for the interview if he had left the house at nine
25Third ConditionalIf you ______________ (not / be) late, we ______________ (not / miss) the bus.If she ______________ (study), she ______________ (pass) the exam.If we ______________ (arrive) earlier, we ______________ (see) John.If they ______________ (go) to bed early, they ______________ (not / wake) up late.If he ______________ (become) a musician, he ______________ (record) a CD.If she ______________ (go) to art school, she ______________ (become) a painter.If I ______________ (be) born in a different country, I ______________ (learn) to speak a different language.If she ______________ (go) to university, she ______________ (study) French.If we ______________ (not / go) to the party, we ______________ (not / meet) them.If he ______________ (take) the job, he ______________ (not / go) travelling.
26Third ConditionalI wouldn't be angry if you _____________________ my chocolate mousse. (to eat)If he had known you were in hospital, he _____________________ you. (to visit)We wouldn't have come by taxi if we _____________________ the right bus. (to find)We would have visited the Prado gallery if we _____________________ time. (to have)If you hadn't been asking me questions all the time, I_____________________ the film.(to enjoy)If I _____________________ your number, I would have phoned.(to know)If just one person had remembered my birthday, I _____________________ sad. (to be)I would have understood the film if it _____________________ in German. (to be*)They _____________________ to see you if they hadn't been away. (to come)if she _____________________ on a double yellow line, she wouldn't have got a fine. (to park)
27If we mix the sentences, we get mixed conditionals. Are those unreal conditional sentences whose time in the if-clause is different than the time in the main-clause. Let's first have a look at unreal conditional sentences:If she were shorter, she would be more attractive.I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.If they hadn't trained hard, they wouldn't have won.As you can see, they refer to the same time: the present, the future or the past.If we mix the sentences, we get mixed conditionals.
28Mixed conditionals Past and Present If my father hadn't lost his keys, we wouldn't have to wait until he finds them. But my father lost his keys and therefore we have to wait until he finds them.If I had installed an anti-virus, my computer wouldn't be so slow now. But I didn't install an anti-virus and therefore my computer is so slow now.If our house had been broken into, we would be very sad. But our house wasn't broken into and we aren't sad.Past and FutureIf our house had been broken into, we would call the police. But our house wasn't broken into and we are not going to call police.If we had won the lottery last week, we would buy a new sofa today. But we didn't win the lottery and we are not going to buy a new sofa today.
29Mixed Conditionals Present and Past If I were smarter, I would have graduated from Stanford. But I am not smarter and therefore I didn't graduate from Stanford.If Mary weren't a snob, she wouldn't have had so many parties this year. But Mary is a snob and therefore she had so many parties this year.Present and FutureIf you were more eloquent, you would become a politician. But I am not more eloquent and I won't become a politician.If you had more time, I would go to the cinema with you. But you don't have more time and I won't go to the cinema with you.
30Verb form in result -clause CONDITIONALSVerb form in if-clauseVerb form in result -clauseMeaning of if-clauseUseExamplesIf + Simple PresentSimple presentReal and Possible situations at any time, but most commonly in present1) situations that can occur at any time(more than once) and their results2) general truths3) general instructionIf you press this key, the game startsIf you boil water, it turns into steamIf you want to start, press the red buttonISimple FuturePossible in the present or future1) possible future events and their results2) command3) offer4) warningsIf it rains, I will stay at homeIf you come home late, don’t make noiseI’ll call the hotel if you don’t have timeI’ll call the police if you don’t leave now!IIIf + Simple PastWouldor verbCould. Impossible or not true in the present. improbable in the future. imaginary situations1) improbable future event or situation2) a hypothetical current situation which is contrary to known facts3) giving adviceIf I won a lottery, I would buy an islandIf I knew the answer I would tell youIf I were you, I would see a doctorIIIIf + Past Perfector have + past participleShouldImpossible in the past1) regret2) criticism.If I had seen the red light, I would have stoppedIf you had worked hard, you could have passed your exam
31All the conditionals exercises If it is sunny tomorrow _______________________________________________If you sit in the sun too long __________________________________________If I were you _______________________________________________________If I were the Prime Minister ___________________________________________If she had studied harder _____________________________________________If I won the lottery __________________________________________________If I hadn’t gone to bed so late _________________________________________If I hadn’t come to London ___________________________________________If you mix water and electricity ________________________________________If she hadn’t stayed at home __________________________________________If I go out tonight___________________________________________________If I were on holiday today ____________________________________________If I had listened to my mother _________________________________________If I hadn’t eaten so much _____________________________________________If it rains later ______________________________________________________If I were British ____________________________________________________If I were the opposite sex ____________________________________________If I have enough money ______________________________________________If you don’t wear a coat in the winter ___________________________________If I weren’t studying English __________________________________________
32wish and If onlyThere are three distinct types of I wish / if only sentences: Expressing a wish: Form: If only / I wish + simple past If only I knew how to use a computer. (I don’t know how to use a computer and I would like to learn how to use it) Use: To express a wish in the present or in the future. The simple past here is an unreal past. When you use the verb to be the form is “were”. Example: I wish I were a millionaire!
33wish and If only Expressing regret: Form: If only / I wish + past perfectExample:If only I had woken up early. (I didn't wake up early and I missed my bus.)Use:To express a regret.The action is past.
34wish and If only Complaining: Form: I wish / if only + would + verb Example:I wish you wouldn't arrive so late all the time (I'm annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time)Use:To complain about a behavior that you disapprove.Expressing impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action.IF ONLY is used to make emphatic wishes: I can't restart the computer. If only I knew how to fix it! We are completely lost. If only you had brought your GPS!
35Exercise Have, meant, must, need, used, want, wish. The Reason (Hoobastank)I'm not a perfect personThere's many things I I didn't doBut I continue learningand the reason is You [x4]I never to do those things to youAnd so I to say before I goThat I just you to knowI've found a reason for meTo change who I to beA reason to start over newand the reason is youI'm sorry that I hurt youIt's something I live with everydayAnd all the pain I put you throughI've found a reason to showI wish that I could take it all awayA side of me you didn't knowAnd be the one who catches all your tearsA reason for all that I doThat’s why I you to hearAnd the reason is you
36SuffixesSuffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways:inflectional (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog > dogs), or changing present tense to past tense (walk > walked). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change.derivational (the new word has a new meaning, "derived" from the original word): for example, teach > teacher or care > careful
37Inflectional suffixes Inflectional suffixes do not change the meaning of the original word. So in "Every day I walk to school" and "Yesterday I walked to school", the words walk and walked have the same basic meaning. In "I have one car" and "I have two cars", the basic meaning of the words car and cars is exactly the same. In these cases, the suffix is added simply for grammatical "correctness". Look at these examples:suffixgrammatical changeexample original wordexample suffixed word-sPluralDogDogs-enPlural (irregular)OxOxen3rd person singular presentLikeHe likes-edPast tensePast participleWorkHe workedHe has workedPast participle (irregular)EatHe has eaten-ingContinuous/progressiveSleepHe is sleeping-erComparativeBigBigger-estSuperlativeThe biggest
38Derivational suffixes With derivational suffixes, the new word has a new meaning, and is usually a different part of speech. But the new meaning is related to the old meaning - it is "derived" from the old meaning.We can add more than one suffix, as in this example:derive (verb) + tion = derivation (noun) + al = derivational (adjective)
39suffixmakingexample original wordexample suffixed word-ationnounsexploreexplorationhesitatehesitation-sionpersuadepersuasiondividedivision-erteachteacher-cianmusicmusician-essgodgoddess-nesssadsadness-alarrivearrival-arydictiondictionary-menttreattreatment-yjealousjealousyvictorvictoryadjectivesaccidentaccidentalimagineimaginary-abletaxtaxable-lybrotherbrotherlyeaseeasy-fulsorrowsorrowfulforgetforgetfuladverbshelpfulhelpfully-izeverbsterrorterrorizeprivateprivatize-atehyphenhyphenate
40SuffixesSuffixes Spelling Rules RULE: 1 - When a word ends with a consonant and the suffix begins with a consonant, simply add the consonant with no spelling changes. enjoyment = enjoy + ment commitment = commit + ment doubtful = doubt + ful RULE: 2 - For most one syllable words ending in a single consonant you need to double the last letter when you add a suffix. run + ing = running sun + y = sunny fun + y = funny *** When the word ends with more than one consonant, the last letter is NOT doubled. jump + ing = jumping sing + ing = singing
41SuffixesRULE: 3 - For words with more than one syllable and end with the letter"L" you must double the "L" when adding suffixes. travel + ing = travelling cancel + ed = cancelled RULE: 4 - For words stressed on the last syllable and ending with a singleconsonant, you need to double the last letter. prefer + ing = preferring begin + er = beginner *** For words where the stress isn't on the last syllable, then you do NOT need to double the last letter. benefit + ed = benefited offer + ing = offering
42Suffixes***OTHER SPELLING RULES- "Y" to "I" and the silent "E" When a word ends in a consonant plus "Y" then the "Y" is changed to "I" when you add the suffix. When adding the suffix 'ing' to a word ending in "Y" -- you keep the "Y." lonely + ness = loneliness happy + ness = happiness copy + ing = copying Silent "E" words end with a consonant and an "E." Words like love, like, and hope...you drop the "E" when you add the suffix. noise + y = noisy simple + y = simply
43PrefixesA prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning.