Presentation on theme: "Scaffolding Academic Language: A Tool for Success!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scaffolding Academic Language: A Tool for Success! 2”The tool was piloted with content area teachers in middle and high school to be used to differentiate instruction by EL’s proficiency levels but also by RIGOR. To often we see low level questioning and not enough higher thinking questioning.
2 Presenters Magdalena Ruz Gonzalez, Project Director III Leolyn Boyer, Independent ConsultantPresenters
3 To support English Learners’ access to academic language with “A Tool To Scaffold Instruction for English Learners”2””Definition for Scaffolding_ Temporary guidance or assistance provided to a student enabling the student to perform a task otherwise he or she would not be able to do alone with the goal of fostering the student’s capacity to perform the task on his or her own later on. Another aspect is that teachers begin to internalize this approach and eventually will only need to use the booklet as reference.OUTCOMES
4 WHAT DO ENGLISH LEARNERS, ACADEMIC LANGUAGE, AND THE COMMON CORE HAVE IN COMMON? 2” Pair SHARE2”The ELD Standards call on teachers to provide students to sustain dialogue on a range of topics and in a variety of content areas, interpret the meaning of informational and literary texts, explain their thinking and build on other’s ideas, construct arguments and justify their positions persuasively with sound evidence and effectively produce written and oral texts in a variety of disciplines for a variety of audiences and purposes.To be able to do this type of Common core work, Els mus have commond of ACADEMIC LANGUAGE!
5 ACADEMIC LANGUAGE AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Academic language provides:Ways to understand concepts (labels, categories, descriptors, etc.)Ways to discuss and write about concepts (describe, compare, etc.)2”Academic Language as described in the new ELD standards means more that a list of 20 words on a page. It Is not copying a definition, IT is always contextualized.When we unpack the ELD standards, we find that academic Language provides ways to understand concepts, to analyze text by types, understand the different features, understand how the text “hangs together” and then look at domain specific vocabulary, general support vocabulary and cognates. Let’s see where these are found in the standards.Focused, explicit academic language instruction and support is critical for EL success.
6 STRUCTURING COHESIVE TEXTS 2”Within the ELD standards, Academic Language is primarily found in Part II, however, domain specific vocabulary and general support vocabulary is in PART 1, standard 12. here we see Standard 1 Understanding text structure….*Note that the left sectionPurpose/functionText TypesLiterary Text
7 EXPANDING AND ENRICHING IDEAS 2”Academic Language is understanding and using verbs and verb phrases accurately.
8 CONNECTING AND CONDENSING IDEAS 2”Academic Language is connecting and condensing ideas through a variety of sentence structures.
9 Ov ACADE MIC LANGUAGE Purposes Text Types Grammatical Language PatternsWord LevelUnderstanding2”So for ELD teachers, the tool is appropriate and was slightly revised to be used for them also.Ov
10 Purposes (Appendix B, pp. 1-6) These relate to student interactions and products:Active VerbsBloom’s TaxonomyWebb’s Depth of Knowledge2”
11 TEXT TYPES (Appendix B pp. 6-14) Text Types and their corresponding structures must be taught so that students understand how different texts are organized, and how they support meaning. Teachers analyze texts to determine what linguistic scaffolds are needed. Various text types are identified in the ELD Standards.Examples:Informational Text= Tables and DiagramsPoetry= Stanzas2”
12 Grammatical Language Patterns (Appendix B, pp.3-4) Analyze how texts are grammatically structured to determine linguistic scaffolds and examine language patterns at these levels:Text Level Understanding-of text types, associated features, structures and can apply it in their writing.Sentence and Clause Level Understanding-guided to unpack “dense sentences” focusing on meaning by DECONSTRUCTING SENTENCES, then, RECOMBINING IDEAS.Phrase Level Understandings-use of noun phrases, adjectives, embedded clauses, etc.2”These relate to Part II of the ELD standards and must be taught in engaging ways that are contextualized in content: Cohesion includes modalities, noun phrases, verb phrases, verb tenses, and more. This is the “glue” that binds words in a sentence.Syntax level. The definition of grammar has been expanded to focus on how grammar works in language, and that is to provide cohesion. Therefore, grammar must always be examined in context.
13 Word Level Understanding (Appendix B, pp. 14-15) Morphemes and word familiesNominalization to change word function and collapse phrases and clausesDomain Specific VocabularyGeneral/Support VocabularyCognates2”In the new standards, the study of vocabulary ( morphology), as it’s been taught traditionally, has been expanded to include these points, not just the definitions of words. They more specifically inform teachers of how to use word knowledge and words in context to construct meaning.
14 General Support Vocabulary: signal/transition words atalthoughaway fromabove allintohoweverin spite ofsinceas a resultand/orNarrative TextArgumentative TextsLiterary textInformative TextRecountProcedural TextExplanatory TextResponse to Literature2”In English language development, students are taught signal (TESOL field) or transition words (ELA standards) to access academic language text structures and improve comprehension. Discuss how these words are important in different ways in different content areas and text contexts. ( for example, how “into” has different meanings in math and social studies). These are the ones to alert students to for different meanings.Point out that although is important in understanding and developing Persuasive text type….since for ExplanatoryWhat other words can you connect to these text types?14
15 INFORMATIONAL DENSITY COMPLEX TEXT ANDINFORMATIONAL DENSITYUnderstanding the structures of sentences, paragraphs,and the text contributes to comprehension.Understanding layered and cultural messages contributeto comprehension.Internalized awareness made explicit throughmodeling, guiding, scaffolding, and discussion.2 min
16 UNPACKING COMPLEX ACADEMIC TEXTS: SCAFFOLDS Instruction at the micro-levels (moment-by-moment) and macro-levels (planned) are critical for comprehension.2 MINEls: Internalized awareness increases when students understand the relationship between linguistic patterns and the purposes they serve in texts.We know that one strategy, a powerful one at that is scaffolding, in order to unpack complex text. We move beyond simple assignments of recalling infromation to higher level thnking tasks of anaylsis, evaluation and creating, even for English Leanres with lower levels of English proficiency.
17 TEXT TYPE: PROCEDURAL TEXT STRUCTURESequence of steps, focuses on audience in general, basic structure includes: goal, material, methodFEATURES TO FOCUS ONUse of headings, subheadings, diagrams, identification of target audienceUse of active/passive verbs, conjunctions, timeless present tense, imperatives, specific vocabulary2”To introduce you to Procedural text, we see that the structure has a goal, materials or a method is presented. As a reader, we must pay attention to these specific features….Social science write in passive voiceTEXT TYPE: PROCEDURAL TEXT
18 CLOSE READING Straight Line Method It is relatively easy to figure out your Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System deduction under the straight line method. First, a new depreciation rate is determined for each year in the recovery period. Second, the Straight Line Rate is determined by dividing the number 1 by the total number of unused years remaining in the recovery period at the beginning of the next tax year. The rate is then applied to the unrecovered basis of the property. If the remaining period at the beginning of the next year is less than the one year, then the Straight Line Rate for that year is 100%5”We see the title identifies a method is going to be introduced. Because of limited time we will only examine those two areas.With a partner: identify purpose words/Bloom words. Now, Identify transition/signal words,
19 Model Remembering: Expanding Level, DOK 1, P. 2 Question: Can you explain what is determined each year?Sentence Frames:The first step is determine a new depreciation rate followed by dividing the number 1 by the total number of unused years remaining in the recovery period at the beginning of the next tax year and the rate is applied.2”Using the “A Tool for Scaffolding Instruction for ELs”Model
20 Remembering: Emerging Level, DOK 1, p 3 Model Strategies: L1 using Google TranslateEs relativamente fácil de averiguar su modificación acelerada recuperación de costos deducción del sistema bajo el método de línea recta. En primer lugar, una nueva tasa de depreciación se determina para cada año en el periodo de recuperación. En segundo lugar la Línea de Cambio recta se determina dividiendo el número 1 por el número total de años restantes no utilizados en el periodo de recuperación a principios del próximo año fiscal. La tasa seaplica a la base no recuperada de la propiedad. Si el periodo restante a principios del próximo año es menor que el de un año, entonces la tasa de línea recta para ese año es del 100%.2”Model
21 Model Remembering: Bridging, DOK Level 1, p. 3 Products: Test Items What is the sequence for determining your MACRS?2. Describe the Straight Line Rate applied to the unrecovered basis of the property.3. When do you use 100% of the Straight Line Rate?4. Have you ever used MACRS? Under what circumstances?5. Apply MACRS to another example2”How many of you are still clueless? A missing component is building background knowledge! So just by providing this tool, we will not achieve Eureka!Model
22 YOU TRY IT!Work in a triad to develop Questions, Sentences Frames, Strategies and Products for two text types from the ELA Text Exemplars provided.Use two different levels of scaffolds but make sure you address all levels of English proficiency.10”The tool can be used at all levels. The key is that teachers need to examine their text and modify the sample sentence frames, as needed.22