Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Reading Motivation and Student Perceptions"— Presentation transcript:
1The Nature of Reading Motivation and Student Perceptions SUKRAN SAYGIDepartment of Basic English,Middle East Technical University
2“Citizens of modern societies must be good readers to be successful “Citizens of modern societies must be good readers to be successful. … The advent of computer and the Internet does nothing to change this fact about reading. If anything, electronic communication only increases the need for effective reading skills and the strategies as we cope with the large quantities of information made available to us” (Grabe, 2009: 5).
3Inspiration for the study “Citizens of modern societies must be good readers to be successful. … The advent of computer and the Internet does nothing to change this fact about reading. If anything, electronic communication only increases the need for effective reading skills and the strategies as we cope with the large quantities of information made available to us” (Grabe, 2009: 5).
5Some facts about Turkey a never ending enthusiasm to change things to reach European standardsa central university placement exam – washbackprivate and state universitiesstate and anatolian high schools (foreign language oriented)
7The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2003 by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)in 41 countries and Turkeymathematics, science and reading testsTurkey has the second lowest performance in all tests among the OECD countries
8The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001 the reading achievement of primary school fourth grade students: 449Park, 2006:home literacy environments of the 25 participant countriesearly home literacy activities, index of parents’ attitudes toward reading and number of books at home Turkey was in the lowest group
9Purpose of the studydefine the nature of motivation to read in Turkish (L1) and in English (L2)to explore the relationship between the students’ motivations to read and their success in reading examsto gain an insight as to the educational value students assign to reading motivation in the classroom dynamics
10MethodologyQuestionnaire Population and Settingpreparatory school of a private university in Ankara, Turkeypre-intermediate (N = 172)upper-intermediate (N = 101)Student intervieweesstudents from the lower and upper third groups depending on percentile scores(N = 8)
11InstrumentsI . The questionnaire was adapted from Wang & Guthrie’s Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (2004) and Yamashita’s (2007) reading attitude questionnaire.II. semi-structured face-to-face interviewsthe formation of their motivation to readthe effect of contextual surroundings (such as teacher, materials) on their motivationtheir expectations about their future education in their departments
12Results & Discussion Quantitative Nature of Reading Motivation (L1 and L2)Principal Component AnalysisCorrelations between L1 Reading Motivaton Constructs and L2 Reading Motivation Constructs
13Principal Component Analysis Factor ExtractedSample ItemPersonal Reasons to ReadI have favorite subjects that I like to read about in English/Turkish.Social RecognitionI feel happy when someone recognizes my reading ability in English/Turkish.AnxietyI feel anxious if I don’t know all the words when I read something in English/Turkish.ComfortI don’t mind even if I cannot understand the content entirely when I read something in English/Turkish.ValueI can become more sophisticated if I read materials in English/Turkish.InformationI can acquire broad knowledge if I read materials in English/Turkish.
14Correlation Analyses L1 and L2 Constructs Whole Questionnaire PopulationPre-intermeaditeUpper-intermediateAnxiety. 203**.199**-Reasons to read.206**.203**. 210*Value.368**.446**.284**Recognition.655**.633**.678**** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
15low or moderate correlations social recognition (Will I look smart?)no correlation between L1 reading anxiety and L2 reading anxiety - proficiency in the target languagelinguistic threshold (cannot be determined)a tentative relationship
16Results Quantitativethe relationship between motivation to read and success in readingHierarchical Regression Analyses
17Comfort is a significant predictor. QuestionResultrelationship between L1 reading motivation and L2 reading achievementNo significant contribution was observed.the relationship between L2 reading motivation and L2 reading achievementL2 reading motivation factors significantly predicted 8.1 % of reading achievement.Pre-intermediateReading anxiety is a significant predictor.Upper-intermediateComfort is a significant predictor.habits and behaviors in L2Time spent reading in English is a significant predictor & a positive significant correlation between the students’ reading achievement and their online text preferences
18no significant contribution from L1 reading motivation role of grammar & vocabularymore difficulty in extracting print information -- frustrationreading enjoyment can come only when the reading is reasonably fluent and effortlessstudents may prefer to read materials that don’t help them in examssocial desirability
19significant contribution from exposure period “Reading is a language problem. ”“comfort” vs “anxiety”“Reading is a reading comprehension problem.”necessity of teaching skills that should have been learnt beforestrategy training autonomy motivation
20Contribution of time spent reading in L2 class hours are valuable for the studentstime was significant contributer at upper-intermediate level – fuency
21text type preferences online materials’ contribution new type of reading – “navigation”students’ gains from the online materials and hyper-reading take time to transfer to classroom practices and exams“digital”kids lacks the ability to read deeply and to sustain a prolonged engagement in reading
22Results & Discusiion Qualitative I. Personal Factorsvalue students put on readinginterest levelsbackgroundII. Institutional Factorssyllabuscoursebookteacherexams
24Reading motivation is a COURSE BOOK thing: “one size fits all mentality”the course book’s syllabus is the syllabusstudents like the reading texts in the course book because they are short and easy --- they are not accustomed to dealing with long texts due to the education system
25the teacher - the only motivator Classroom Conditionsthe teacher- the only motivator- higher levels of student motivation when they see that the teacher care about their progress
26students are more interested in soft texts than pen-and-paper texts What to do, then?having the freedom to choose motivates students to become engaged in their readingstudents are more interested in soft texts than pen-and-paper textsmore technology in class
27beyond the teacher’s control … syllabus – needs analyisinstitutionalized syllabuscourse book selection
28ReferencesGrabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.Mendi, H.B. (2009). The relationship between reading strategies, motivation and reading test performance in foreign language learning. Unpublished master’s thesis, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.Park, H. (2008). Home literacy environments and children’s reading performance: A comparative study of 25 countries. Educational Research and Evaluation, 14 (6),Wang, J. H. & Guthrie, J. T. (2004) Modeling the Effects of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Amount of Reading, and Past Reading Achievement on Text Comprehension between U.S. and Chinese students. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, (2) ppYamashita, J. (2002). Influence of L1 reading on L2 reading: different perspectives from the process and product of reading. Studies in Language and Culture, 23 (2),Yamashita, J. (2007). The relationship of reading attitudes between L1 and L2: An investigation of adult EFL learners in Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 41 (1),
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