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PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. YOU MUST KNOW… THE FUNCTION OF XYLEM AND PHLOEM TISSUE THE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEIDS, VESSELS, SIEVE-TUBE ELEMENTS, AND.

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Presentation on theme: "PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. YOU MUST KNOW… THE FUNCTION OF XYLEM AND PHLOEM TISSUE THE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEIDS, VESSELS, SIEVE-TUBE ELEMENTS, AND."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE FUNCTION OF XYLEM AND PHLOEM TISSUE THE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEIDS, VESSELS, SIEVE-TUBE ELEMENTS, AND COMPANION CELLS THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PRIMARY GROWTH AND APICAL MERISTEMS VERSUS SECONDARY GROWTH AND LATERAL MERISTEMS

3 CONCEPT 35.1 THE PLANT BODY HAS A HIERARCHY OF ORGANS, TISSUES, AND CELLS

4 ROOT SYSTEM – ANCHORS THE PLANT, ABSORBS WATER AND MINERALS, AND OFTEN STORES SUGARS AND STARCHES FIBROUS ROOTS – THIN ROOTS THAT ARE SPREAD JUST BELOW THE SOIL’S SURFACE (MONOCOTS) TAPROOTS – ONE THICK, VERTICAL ROOT WITH MANY LATERAL ROOTS COMING OUT FROM IT (DICOTS) ROOT HAIRS – INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA MAKING EFFICIENT ABSORPTION OF WATER AND MINERALS POSSIBLE MYCORRHIZAE – SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP WITH FUNGI AT THE TIPS OF THE ROOTS, ASSIST IN THE ABSORPTION PROCESS

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6 SHOOT SYSTEM CONSISTS OF STEM – FUNCTION TO DISPLAY LEAVES TERMINAL BUD – LOCATED AT THE TOP END OF THE STEM WHERE GROWTH USUALLY OCCURS APICAL DOMINANCE - THE TERMINAL BUD PROHIBITS THE GROWTH OF THE AXILLARY BUDS. IT CONCENTRATES THE GROWTH OF THE PLANT UPWARD TOWARD LIGHT AXILLARY BUDS – LOCATED IN THE V FORMED BETWEEN THE LEAF AND THE STEM, FORM LATERAL SHOOTS LEAVES – MAIN PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGAN

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8 3 PLANT ORGAN TISSUES DERMAL TISSUE – CLOSELY PACKED CELLS THAT PROTECTS PLANT AGAINST WATER LOSS AND INVASION OF PATHOGENS VASCULAR TISSUE – TRANSPORTS MATERIALS BETWEEN ROOTS AND SHOOTS XYLEM – TRANSPORTS WATER AND MINERAL UP FROM THE ROOTS PHLOEM – TRANSPORTS FOOD FROM THE LEAVES TO OTHER PARTS OF PLANT GROUND TISSUE – BETWEEN THE DERMAL AND VASCULAR TISSUE. MAKES UP MOST OF THE BODY OF THE PLANT.

9 DIFFERENTIATED CELLS XYLEM – MOST ARE DEAD CELLS 2 TYPES OF CELLS 1. TRACHEIDS – LONG THIN WALLS STRENGTHENED WITH LIGNIN, WATER MOVES FROM CELL TO CELL THROUGH THE PITS IN IT 2. VESSELS – FOUND MAINLY IN ANGIOSPERMS, HAVE PITS AND PERFORATED END WALLS FOR MOST EFFICIENT WATER MOVEMENT

10 DIFFERENTIATED CELLS PHLOEM – LIVE CELLS – CONDUCT SUGAR AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - 2 TYPES 1.SIEVE TUBES – CHAINS OF CELLS THAT ARE HIGHLY MODIFIED FOR TRANSPORT, LACKING A NUCLEUS, RIBOSOMES, AND A CENTRAL VACUOLE 2.COMPANION CELLS – PROVIDE MOLECULAR NEEDS OF SIEVE, ARE CONNECTED TO THE SIEVE BY PLASMODESMATA

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12 GROUND TISSUE – SUBDIVIDED INTO 3 TYPES PARENCHYMA – MOST ABUNDANT, THROUGHT PLANT, PERFORM MOST OF THE METABOLISM (INCLUDING PHOTOSYNTHESIS) COLLENCHYMA – GROUPED IN CYLINDERS THAT PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY AND HELP SUPPORT GROWING PARTS OF THE PLANT (MAINLY IN STEM AND LEAVES) SCHLERENCHYMA – IN PARTS THAT ARE NO LONGER GROWING, IT PROTECTS SEEDS AND SUPPORTS PLANT

13 CONCEPT 35.2 MERISTEMS GENERATE CELLS FOR NEW ORGANS

14 LIFE CYCLE ANNUALS – LIFE CYCLE COMPLETED IN ONE YEAR BIENNIALS – LIFE CYCLE COMPLETED IN TWO YEARS PERENNIALS – LIFE CYCLE CONTINUES FOR MANY YEAR

15 MERISTEMS EMBRYONIC TISSUES RESPONSIBLE FOR INDETERMINATE GROWTH APICAL MERISTEM – LOCATED AT THE TIPS OF ROOTS AND IN BUDS OF SHOOTS AND RESULTS IN GROWTH IN IS IN LENGTH (HEIGHT) (PRIMARY GROWTH) LATERAL MERISTEM – RESULTS IN GROWTH THAT THICKENS THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS (WIDTH) (SECONDARY GROWTH)

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17 CONCEPT 35.3 PRIMARY GROWTH LENGTHENS ROOTS AND SHOOTS

18 ROOT CAP – PROTECTS THE MERISTEM OF THE ROOT TIP AS IT PUSHES THROUGH SOIL ROOT TIP – 3 ZONES OF CELLS 1.ZONE OF CELL DIVISION – INCLUDES ROOT APICAL MERISTEM, CELLS ARE ACTIVELY DIVIDING TO MAKE NEW CELLS 2.ZONE OF ELONGATION – CELLS ABSORB H 2 O AND ELONGATE SIGNIFICANTLY 3.ZONE OF MATURATION – COMPLETE DIFFERENTIATION AND BECOME FUNCTIONALLY MATURE

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20 STOMATA – SMALL PORES ON THE UNDERSIDE OF LEAVES FLANKED BY GUARD CELLS (OPEN/CLOSE STOMATA) IN LEAVES, GROUND TISSUE IS SANDWICHED BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER EPIDERMIS IN THE MESOPHYLL – MADE OF PARENCHYMA CELLS WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS

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22 CONCEPT 35.4 SECONDARY GROWTH ADDS GIRTH TO STEMS AND ROOTS IN WOODY PLANTS

23 2 LATERAL MERISTEMS VASCULAR CAMBIUM – PRODUCES SECONDARY XYLEM (WOOD) CORK CAMBIUM – PRODUCES A TOUGH COVERING THAT REPLACE EPIDERMIS EARLY IN SECONDARY GROWTH BARK – OUTSIDE THE VASCULAR CAMBIUM, INCLUDES THE PHLOEM, VASCULAR AND CORK CAMBIUM

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25 CONCEPT 35.5 GROWTH, MORPHOGENESIS, AND DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCE THE PLANT BODY

26 IT IS THE CELL EXPANSION THAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE ACTUAL INCREASE IN PLANT MASS MORPHOGENESIS – DEVELOPMENT OF BODY FORM AND ORGANIZATION PATTERN FORMATION – THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC STRUCTURES IN SPECIFIC LOCATION

27 PLANT HORMONES ABSCISIC ACID – MAKES SURE SEENDS DON’T GERMINATE TOO EARLY, INHIBITS CELL GROWTH, AND STIMULATES THE CLOSING OF THE STOMATA AUXIN – LEADS TO ELONGATION OF STEMS AND PLAYS A ROLE IN PHOTOTROPISM AND GRAVITROPISM

28 CYTOKININS – PROMOTE CELL DIVISION AND LEAF ENLARGEMENT, SLOWS DOWN AGING OF LEAVES ETHYLENE – INITIATES FRUIT RIPENING AND CAUSES FLOWERS AND LEAVES TO DROP (ASSOCIATED WITH AGE) GIBBERELLINS – ASSISTS IN STEM ELONGATION, INDUCES THE GROWTH OF DORMANT SEEDS, BUDS, AND FLOWERS


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