(1) Anchorage of the plant in soil (2) Absorption of water and minerals from the soil (3) Conduction of water and minerals from the region of absorption to the base of the stem (4) Starch storage to varying degree
Parenchyma Thin cell walls with large vacuoles The most common cell in plants Photosynthetis, storage of carbohydrates, support, and lateral transport Parenchyma cells make up the bulk of the cortex, pith, xylem, and phloem Alive when functioning
Annual rings are made of secondary xylem, which make up the wood of the stem surrounding the pith. Each annual ring has several rows of spring wood, thin-walled, large-diameter cells that grew in the spring, and, outside of these, a few rows of summer wood, thick-walled, smaller- diameter cells that grew in the summer when water was less abundant.
Does this make sense? Spring = more available water = larger cells Summer = less available water = smaller cells Thus, you can distinguish spring wood and summer wood by thicker and thinner rings, respectively.