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AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryo Netted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root
Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma Dermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem
Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata
Meristems Shoot Lateral Root
Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away
Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicot Coleoptile: monocot
Germination: breaking dormancy Imbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation
Primary vs. secondary growth Primary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork)
Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex Endodermis Vascular cylinder (stele)
Stem structure Epidermis with cutin Cortex Vascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings)
Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium
Cell plates – plant mitosis
Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata
Transport Transpiration – water transport Bulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport
Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cells Symplast vs. apoplast Transport types
Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cells Symplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension
Root and H 2 O
Leaf water potential
Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperature CO 2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K + out of guard cells
Sieve tube: pressure flow
Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin Ethylene Gibberellin
Plant Form & Function Plant Anatomy AP Biology Bloomington High School.
Plant Tissues and Organs Annuals Biennials Perennials Dicots Monocots Cotyledon Root system Shoot system SIMPLE TISSUES Meristems Apical meristems Primary.
PLANTS. Evolution of Plants Monocots and Dicots.
Plant Practical Practice. Instructions Look through the following slides and identify, label etc. – There is a handout you can print out or use your own.
Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth. Angiosperms Flowering Plants –Two Classes Monocots- named for single cotyledon Dicots- named for two cotyledons.
Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth. Angiosperm structure Three basic organs: 1.Roots (root system) fibrous: mat of thin roots taproot: one large, vertical.
MONOCOTSDICOTS 1 cotyledon (storage tissue that provides nutrition to the developing seedling) Parallel pattern of veins in leaves Flower parts.
Plant Structure Chapter 35. Angiosperms Monocots Seed one cotyledon (seed leaf) Leaves parallel veins Roots fibrous Vascular tissue scattered Flower parts.
PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. YOU MUST KNOW… THE FUNCTION OF XYLEM AND PHLOEM TISSUE THE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEIDS, VESSELS, SIEVE-TUBE ELEMENTS, AND.
Phloem Two types of cells: sieve tube members with no nuclei for transport and companion cells to support the sieve tube members via plasmodesmata cell.
PLANT UNIT Chapters 29-30, Evolution -Structure and Growth -Transport -Nutrition -Reproduction -Responses.
Lecture # 16 Date _____ Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth.
Chapter 23 Plant Structure and Function 1.Tissue systems and growing regions 2.Roots 3.Stems 4.Leaves.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Eudicots Monocots Stems Embryos Roots One cotyledon Two cotyledons Leaf venation Veins usually parallel Veins usually netlike.
PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION D Jones. Plant Cell Types parenchyma –metabolism –storage –contain plastids that store store starch –support with growth.
DICOT LEAF CUTICLE PALISADE PARENCHYMA (MESOPHYLL) UPPER EPIDERMIS BUNDLE SHEATH XYLEM PHLOEM.
Plant Structure and Function Chapter 31. Plant cells: Parenchyma Large central vacuole Storage of water Form the bulk of non- woody plants.
Lecturer: Suhail Al-Khatib. Flowering plants, or angiosperms, are extremely diverse but share many common structural features. Most flowering plants.
Specialized Organs & tissues in plants – plants do not have organ systems – Fig A. Roots – anchors plant, takes up water and minerals, provides.
PLANTS : Structure and Growth. First some basics… Gymnosperms - Less common, more “ancient”, no flowers. Bear “naked seeds” not enclosed by special chambers.
Plant Structure And Growth. The Plant Body is Composed of Cells and Tissues l Tissue systems l made up of tissues l made up of cells.
Ch 23- Roots, Stems, and Leaves Cells of seed plant are organized into different tissues and organs Principal organs of seed plants- roots, stems, leaves.
Lecture # 16 Date _____ 8Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth.
Unit 7 Chapter 23 Plant Structure and Function. Typical plant cell.
Unit 7 Plants Chapter 23 Roots, Stems, and Leaves.
Chapters 21 and 22. Round 1 Plant Cells and Tissues Plant Growth RootsStemsLeaves Round 2.
The Plant Kingdom (Part I) Kingdom Characteristics.
Figure Review of General Plant Cell Structure.
Leaf anatomy. Leaves start as outgrowths from apical meristem: leaf primordia.
Chapter 33: Stems and Plant Transport Chapter 34: Roots.
Plant Structure. Plant Body Plan The apical–basal pattern and the radial pattern are parts of the plant body plan They arise through orderly development.
Chapter 21 Plant Structure and Function. Specialized Tissues in Plants Seed Plant Structure (3 principal organs) Seed Plant Structure (3 principal organs)
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 35.
PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION THE PHYLOGENY OF PLANTS… Charophytes (green algae) Bryophytes (non vascular) Trachoephytes (seedless, vascular) Gymnosperms.
PLANT STRUCTURE & DEVELOPMENT Chapter 35. Overview Roots – Underground Shoots – Leafs & Stems 3 Tissue types in the above Dermal, Vascular, & Ground.
Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves Chapter 23.
Plant Tissues. Tissue Collection of cells with a similar function. Plant Tissues Dermal Ground Vascular.
Plant Structure & Function AP Biology. Plant Evolution _____________- ancestor of all plants _____________- mosses- were the first land plants Next _________.
What is structure B? Secondary Xylem Secondary Phloem Periderm Procambium Vascular Cambium.
Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth. Plants Nonvascular- no system of transport Vascular-system of transport (simple & complex) Gymnosperms – conifers…
Chapter 35 Notes Plant Structure and Growth. Concept 35.1 Plants are made up of two main systems: the root system and shoot system Plants have three basic.
Plant Anatomy Spikelet Inflorescence Internode Culm (stem) Node (joint) Rhizome Stolon Leaf.
Roots, Stems, and Leaves. Specialized Tissues In Plants A.Seed Plant Structure 1.Roots 2.Stems 3.Leaves B.Plant Tissue Systems C.Dermal Tissue D.Vascular.
Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth. I. Two Systems A.Root System B.Shoot System.
Plant Structure An overview. Plant Cells Cell Walls Primary Secondary Middle lamella Plasmodesmata.
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