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Plant Anatomy and PhysiologyAP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryoNetted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root
Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchymaDermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem
Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata
Meristems Shoot Lateral Root
Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away
Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicotColeoptile: monocot
Germination: breaking dormancyImbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation
Primary vs. secondary growthPrimary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork)
Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex EndodermisVascular cylinder (stele)
Stem structure Epidermis with cutin CortexVascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings)
Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium
Cell plates – plant mitosis
Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyllSpongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata
Transport Transpiration – water transportBulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport
Transport types Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cellsSymplast vs. apoplast
Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cellsSymplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension
Root and H2O
Leaf water potential
Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperatureCO2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K+ out of guard cells
Sieve tube: pressure flow
Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin EthyleneGibberellin
Plant Form & Function Plant Anatomy
Plant Tissues and Organs Annuals Biennials Perennials Dicots Monocots Cotyledon Root system Shoot system SIMPLE TISSUES Meristems Apical meristems Primary.
Plant Practical Practice. Instructions Look through the following slides and identify, label etc. – There is a handout you can print out or use your own.
Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth
Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth. Angiosperm structure Three basic organs: 1.Roots (root system) fibrous: mat of thin roots taproot: one large, vertical.
Plant Structure Chapter 35.
PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION
Phloem Two types of cells: sieve tube members with no nuclei for transport and companion cells to support the sieve tube members via plasmodesmata cell.
PLANT UNIT Chapters 29-30, Evolution -Structure and Growth -Transport -Nutrition -Reproduction -Responses.
Lecture # 16 Date _____ Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth.
Chapter 23 Plant Structure and Function
Figure 28.2 A comparison of monocots and eudicots
PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION D Jones. Plant Cell Types parenchyma –metabolism –storage –contain plastids that store store starch –support with growth.
DICOT LEAF CUTICLE PALISADE PARENCHYMA (MESOPHYLL) UPPER EPIDERMIS BUNDLE SHEATH XYLEM PHLOEM.
Plant Structure and Function Chapter 31. Plant cells: Parenchyma Large central vacuole Storage of water Form the bulk of non- woody plants.
Lecturer: Suhail Al-Khatib. Flowering plants, or angiosperms, are extremely diverse but share many common structural features. Most flowering plants.
Roots, Stems & Leaves.
PLANTS: Structure and Growth.
Plant Structure And Growth. The Plant Body is Composed of Cells and Tissues l Tissue systems l made up of tissues l made up of cells.
Ch 23- Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Lecture # 16 Date _____ 8Chapter #35~ Plant Structure and Growth.
Unit 7 Chapter 23 Plant Structure and Function
Chapter 23 Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Chapters 21 and 22.
The Plant Kingdom (Part I)
Figure Review of General Plant Cell Structure
Leaf anatomy. Leaves start as outgrowths from apical meristem: leaf primordia.
Chapter 33: Stems and Plant Transport Chapter 34: Roots.
Plant Structure. Plant Body Plan The apical–basal pattern and the radial pattern are parts of the plant body plan They arise through orderly development.
Plant Structure and Function
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 35.
PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION THE PHYLOGENY OF PLANTS… Charophytes (green algae) Bryophytes (non vascular) Trachoephytes (seedless, vascular) Gymnosperms.
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
PLANT STRUCTURE & DEVELOPMENT
Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Plant Tissues. Tissue Collection of cells with a similar function. Plant Tissues Dermal Ground Vascular.
Plant Structure & Function AP Biology. Plant Evolution _____________- ancestor of all plants _____________- mosses- were the first land plants Next _________.
What is structure B? Periderm Secondary Xylem Secondary Phloem
Plant Structure and Growth
PLANT STRUCTURE & DEVELOPMENT Chapter 35. Overview Roots – Underground Shoots – Leafs & Stems 3 Tissue types in the above Dermal, Vascular, & Ground.
Plant Anatomy Spikelet Inflorescence Internode Culm (stem) Node (joint) Rhizome Stolon Leaf.
Roots, Stems, and Leaves.
Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth. I. Two Systems A.Root System B.Shoot System.
Plant Structure An overview. Plant Cells Cell Walls Primary Secondary Middle lamella Plasmodesmata.
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