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AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryo Netted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root
Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma Dermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem
Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata
Meristems Shoot Lateral Root
Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away
Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicot Coleoptile: monocot
Germination: breaking dormancy Imbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation
Primary vs. secondary growth Primary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork)
Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex Endodermis Vascular cylinder (stele)
Stem structure Epidermis with cutin Cortex Vascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings)
Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium
Cell plates – plant mitosis
Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata
Transport Transpiration – water transport Bulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport
Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cells Symplast vs. apoplast Transport types
Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cells Symplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension
Root and H 2 O
Leaf water potential
Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperature CO 2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K + out of guard cells
Sieve tube: pressure flow
Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin Ethylene Gibberellin
SC.912.L.14.7Plant Structures and Functions. Plant Structures and Functions 1. Monocots vs. Dicots -Root structure and vasculature -Stem vasculature -Leaf.
Plant Anatomy and Physiology Ms. Marsh. Today… Plant Anatomy –Cells –Tissues –Organs Plant Physiology –Water & sugar transport –Plant hormones.
UNIT IX – KINGDOM PLANTAE Big Campbell –Ch 29, 30, 35 – 39 Baby Campbell –Ch 17, 31 – 33 Hillis –Ch 21,
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.
Transport in Plants Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area:volume ratio; Describe, with the aid.
LG 3 – Plant Transport Plant Material Transport Material Transport – Passive and Active Transport – Water Movement in Plants – Transport in Roots Water.
Transport in Plants Objectives: * Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area:volume ratio; **Describe,
Plant Science HL Red Book Sections: 9.1 to 9.3. Dicotyledonous: Stem Tissue Pith: a storage and support area. Cortex: helps with the support. Epidermis:
Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants.
Root Structure and Function Penetration of Soil Gravitropism Downward Growth Water and Mineral Intake Conduction (Xylem and Phloem) Storage of Materials.
Introduction to Plants Mrs. M. Rightler. Earliest Plants Algae Phytoplankton Lived in the sea.
BIOLOGY TOPIC Outline the wide diversity in the plant kingdom as exemplified by the structural differences between bryophytes, filicinophytes,
SMAK BPK PENABUR SUKABUMI GRADE XI – SCIENCE CLASS Lectures by : Agustina Eka H.,S.SI.
Transport in Plants Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface- area-to-volume ratio. Describe the distribution.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and.
Chapter 36 Transport in Vascular Plants. A. Physical Forces H2OH2O CO 2 O2O2 light sugar H2OH2O CO 2 O2O2 minerals.
Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.
Biology AHSGE Standard X- Kingdom Plantae. Eligible Content CONTENT STANDARD 10. Distinguish between monocots and dicots, angiosperms and gymnosperms,
Science AHSGE Standard III-2 Kingdom Plantae. Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotrophic/producers- Make their own food Chlorophyll- green pigment.
Angiosperms III Plant Cell Types. Most angiosperm plants are composed of 10 fundamental cell types Many more specialized cell types do occur in some plants.
Monocots vs. Dicots Monocot seeds include grasses, such as corn and rye, and grains such as wheat and rice. A monocot seed contains one cotyledon, or seed.
Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves Roots Anchor the plant and absorb nutrients and water Mutualistic relationship with.
SC.912.L.14.7 Relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes.
AP Biology Chapter 36: Transport in Plants.
TISSUES WORKING TOGETHER The primary function of the leaves of most plants is to perform photosynthesis. In order for photosynthesis to occur, plants.
Plant Parts - Stems The plants inner highway 2001 AgriTeach.com TM (12901ms)
Transport in plants Xylem: Evapo-transpiration. Why do plants need a transport system? To transport food and water throughout the plant from roots to.
Transport in plants Xylem: Evapo-transpiration. Objectives Describe the structure of xylem vessels & sieve tubes. Describe the structure of xylem vessels.
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