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AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology

2 Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryo Netted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root

3 Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma Dermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem

4 Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata

5 Xylem

6 Phloem

7 Meristems Shoot Lateral Root

8 Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away

9 Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicot Coleoptile: monocot

10 Germination: breaking dormancy Imbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation

11 Seed germination

12 Primary vs. secondary growth Primary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork)

13 Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex Endodermis Vascular cylinder (stele)

14 Root

15 Stem structure Epidermis with cutin Cortex Vascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings)

16 Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium

17 Cell plates – plant mitosis

18 Tree stem

19 Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata

20 Leaves

21 Transport Transpiration – water transport Bulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport

22 Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cells Symplast vs. apoplast Transport types

23 Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cells Symplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension

24 Root and H 2 O

25 Leaf water potential

26 Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperature CO 2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K + out of guard cells

27 Stomata control

28 Sugar transport

29 Sieve tube: pressure flow

30 Mineral uptake

31 Symbiotic bacteria

32 Double fertilization

33 Auxin

34 Signaling

35 Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin Ethylene Gibberellin

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