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Plant Form & Function Plant AnatomyAP Biology Bloomington High School
Plant Tissues Ground tissues Parenchyma Thin walls StoragePhotosynthesis Secretion
Plant Tissues Ground tissues Collenchyma Thick, flexible walls Support
Plant Tissues Ground tissues Sclerenchyma Thick walls Support
Plant Tissues Dermal Tissue Epidermis Cover surface of plantGuard cells-
Plant Tissues Vascular Tissue Xylem Transports water & mineralsTracheids Vessel elements
Plant Tissues Vascular Tissue Phloem Transports foodSieve-tube members Companion cells
Primary vs. Secondary GrowthPrimary Growth Growth in length Apical meristems Tips of roots & shoots
Primary vs. Secondary GrowthGrowth in width Lateral meristems Vascular cambium Cork cambium
Root Tip Root cap Protects apical meristem
Root Tip Zone of cell division Cells divide Apical meristem
Root Tip Zone of elongation Cells absorb water & elongate
Root Tip Zone of maturation Cells mature Perform specific functionsCells differentiate Root hairs
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Epidermis Outer layer of cellsProvides protection
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Cortex Ground tissue May contain chloroplasts
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Pith StorageProvides support through turgor pressure
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Vascular Bundle Xylem & phloem Occur in rings
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Vascular Bundle Bundle cap CellsDead Fibrous Thick walled Sclerenchyma cells Provide support
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Vascular Bundle Phloem Transports foodSieve-tube members Long Living cells Companion cells Small Parenchyma cells
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Vascular Bundle Xylem Transports water TracheidsDead Thick walled Vessel elements Large diameter
Herbaceous Dicot Stem Vascular Bundle Vascular cambiumBetween xylem & phloem Cells divide to form xylem & phloem
Woody Stem Pith
Woody Stem Xylem Wood
Woody Stem Xylem Wood Summer wood Spring wood Small cells Less waterLarge cells More water
Woody Stem Xylem Annual rings 1st year’s growth 2nd year’s growth3rd year’s growth
Woody Stem Bark Phloem Cortex
Woody Stem Vascular cambium Between xylem & phloemProduces new xylem & phloem cells Secondary growth
Dicot Root Cross SectionEpidermis Absorbs water Root hairs increase surface area for water absorption In older roots provides protection
Dicot Root Cross SectionCortex Bulk of root Stores starch
Dicot Root Cross SectionVascular cylinder Stele Xylem & phloem Outlined by endodermis
Dicot Root Cross SectionVascular cylinder Xylem Large cells Dead Transport water & minerals
Dicot Root Cross SectionVascular cylinder Phloem Small cells Transport food
Dicot Root Cross SectionVascular cylinder Endodermis Casparian strip Waxy Forms barrier All water must pass through endodermis before entering stele
Leaf Upper epidermis Provides protection Cuticle WaxyDecreases water loss
Leaf Lower epidermis Contains stomata HolesAllow CO2 in & O2 & H2O out Surrounded by guard cells
Leaf Palisade mesophyll Parenchyma cells Tightly packed Photosynthesis
Leaf Spongy mesophyll Parenchyma cells Loosely arranged PhotosynthesisAir spaces
Leaf Vascular bundle Veins Xylem (red) & phloem (green)Bundle sheath cells surround bundles
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
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NOT ON AP: NEEDED FOR BACKGROUND
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