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Chapter 12 The Color Line From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

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1 Chapter 12 The Color Line From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

2 The Path to Disfranchisement Preventing Black Voting Legally Rise of the Conservative Democrats; sought a probusiness climate of order and stability Used a variety of means to prevent the black vote Poll taxes, literacy tests, complicated balloting processes, centralized election codes; gerrymandering Black Reappearance in Politics With black Republicanism gone, disputes between white classes appear Poor whites distrust Conservative Democrats © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 3 A rural black man “freely” exercises right to vote

4 The Path to Disfranchisement Economic depression caused farmers to organize against the New South proponents of business and industry Some short-lived instances of racial cooperation Readjuster Party: emphasized economic interests instead of racial differences The Radical Agrarian Movement Black and white farmers drifted together under radical agrarianism Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Cooperative Union © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4

5 The Path to Disfranchisement Led to creation of Populist Party, the political agency of the resurgent famers Sought to win black vote and secure black franchise Tom Watson Successful Coalitions Coalition of Populists and remnants of old Republican organizations had some success Able to open up voting to blacks in North Carolina in 1894 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5

6 The Path to Disfranchisement Complete Disfranchisement After collapse of agrarian revolt, both white factions agreed on the need to disfranchise black voters Disagreed on the methods of disfranchisement; many poor whites afraid they too would be disqualified Mississippi Plan Suffrage amendment with purpose of disfranchisement set precedent for several other states Poll tax, disqualification for convicts, required persons to read and understand state constitution South Carolina; “Pitchfork Ben” Tillman © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6

7 7 Isaiah Montgomery

8 The Path to Disfranchisement The Black Response Bitterly denounced racist amendments; unable to garner white support Effective Disfranchisement By 1910, blacks effectively disfranchised in North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Georgia, and Oklahoma Back to Slavery “White primary” excluded blacks by party rules Blacks had no political clout © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

9 9 Black men fought unsuccessfully to defend themselves in the Wilmington, North Carolina, riot in November 1898

10 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 Drawing, The Union as It Was, by Thomas Nast, Harper’s Weekly, October 24, 1874

11 Legalizing Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson 1895 Supreme Court case upheld segregation doctrine of “separate but equal” White Man’s Country “Insider” and “outsider” status based on racial identity sanctioned by legal process Public space considered white private property Segregated transportation evoked most notable challenges to Jim Crow © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

12 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Handwritten decision, Plessy v. Ferguson

13 Confronting the Urban Color Line Rapid growth of blacks in urban cities More economic and social opportunities; more prominent color line Employment and Unions Difficult for blacks to find jobs and join unions in cities Housing Difficulty finding housing exaggerated by segregation; created congestion © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13

14 Confronting the Urban Color Line Transportation Introduction of Jim Crow streetcars brought on black boycotts and protests Black women played primary role © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

15 America’s Empire of Color The United States Expands U.S. imperialist ambitions focused on lands and resources of world’s darker-skinned peoples “Scramble for Africa” Hawaiian Islands and other small pacific islands The Caribbean U.S. increasingly interested in South America and Caribbean Cuba Sinking of the Maine © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 America’s Empire of Color The Spanish American War Some African Americans enlisted in the army; some vocal anti-imperialists Blacks troops treated poorly during the war but had much success in battle Reinforced the Rough Riders Garrison Duty and Pacific Services U.S. citizens not entirely in favor of arming African Americans or having them serve as troops of occupation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

17 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 The Tenth Cavalry

18 America’s Empire of Color The United States as a Great Power U.S. victory over Spain established it as a world power Treaty of Paris gave the U.S. Cuba, Puerto Rico, Spain’s other West Indies islands, and the Philippines Puerto Rico U.S. had to pursue an imperial policy that would not upset racial balance at home Puerto Rican government carefully supervised by Congress; officials appointed by U.S. president © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18

19 America’s Empire of Color The Virgin Islands U.S. purchased Danish West Indies in 1917 for their strategic and military importance Haiti African American ministers went to Haiti with hopes of extending American influence Liberia American ministers sought to develop the commercial and economic life of the country © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19

20 The Pattern of Violence Lynch Law Racial violence continued into the new century; lynching an important part of punishment in the U.S. Race Riots Epidemic of race riots swept the country The Atlanta Riot White newspapers intensified fear and hatred of blacks; violence and rioting erupted © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20

21 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Lynching

22 The Pattern of Violence Brownsville Texas Riot involving some members of black Twenty- Fifth Regiment President Roosevelt dismissed entire battalion Roosevelt criticized for not giving members a full and fair trial 1909 act of Congress provided for a court of inquiry Violence in the North Hostility and violence toward blacks also grew in the North © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22

23 The Pattern of Violence The Springfield Riot Black man falsely accused of beating and raping a white woman Mob began to destroy African American businesses; lynched African American man Militia was called in to restore order © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23


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