Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
2Multimedia Asset Directory Slide 24 Medical Specialties VideoSlide 32 Vital Signs VideoSlide 45 Medical Assisting VideoSlide 46 Health Information Management VideoSlide 47 Medical Transcription Video
3IntroductionHealth professionals speak a foreign language called medical terminology.This chapter will lay the foundation for learning this new language.Future chapters will build upon the foundation that begins here, so at journey’s end you will not only understand anatomy and physiology, but be fluent in the language.
4Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the term “anatomy and physiology” and its various related areas.Construct and define medical terms using word roots, prefixes, and suffixes.Explain the concept and importance of homeostasis.
5Pronunciation Guide anatomy (ah NA tom ee) diagnosis (dye ag NOH sis) Click on the megaphone icon before each item to hear the pronunciation.anatomy (ah NA tom ee)diagnosis (dye ag NOH sis)etiology (ee tee ALL oh jee)homeostasis (hoh mee oh STAY sis)macroscopic anatomy (mak roh SCOP ic)metabolism (meh TAB oh lizm)microscopic anatomy (my kroh SCOP ic)pathology (path ALL oh jee)physiology (fiz ee ALL oh jee)
6Pronunciation Guide prognosis (prog NOH sis) syndrome (SIN drohm) Click on the megaphone icon before each item to hear the pronunciation.prognosis (prog NOH sis)syndrome (SIN drohm)
7AnatomyAnatomy is the study of the internal and external structures of the human body.The human body is complex and amazing; to truly understand it you must know how it is put together.Anatomy is a Greek word meaning “to cut apart.”Specialties within the field of anatomy include microscopic anatomy and macroscopic (gross) anatomy.
8Microscopic Anatomy Specialized field of anatomy The study of structures that can only be seen and studied with magnification aids such as a microscopeThe study of cellular structures is called cytology.The study of tissue samples is called histology.
9Macroscopic Anatomy Also called gross anatomy The study of the structures of the body visible to the naked, or unaided, eyeExamples includeThe study of the skeletal systemLooking at an X-ray (radiology)
10PhysiologyFocuses on the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human bodyClosely related to anatomy because it is the study of how an anatomical structure actually functionsDeals with all the vital processes of life and is more complex, with more sub-specialties
11Subspecialties of Physiology Human physiologyAnimal physiologyCellular physiologyNeurophysiology
12Putting It All Together Anatomy focuses on structures and how something is put together.Physiology is the study of how these different structures work together to make the body function as a whole.The design of the structure is often related to its function.
13Putting It All Together Human anatomy and physiology forms the foundation for all medical practice.Anything that upsets normal structure or function can be called pathology or pathophysiology.
14Figure 1–1 A. Normal red blood cells (RBCs) are flexible and donut shaped and move with ease through blood vessels.
15Figure 1–1 (continued) B. The anatomical distortion of the structure of RBCs in sickle cell anemia affects its normal function to carry oxygen. In addition, the sickle cells lose their ability to bend and pass through the small blood vessels, blocking blood flow.
16Medical TerminologyThe language of anatomy and physiology is primarily based on medical terminology.Learning medical terminology is easier if you understand the root terms, prefixes, and suffixes that can be put together to form a large variety of terms.Each medical term has a basic structure upon which to build, called a word root.Prefixes and suffixes are added to root words and can change or alter the meaning.
17Figure 1–2 How prefixes and suffixes can be combined with a word root to form many medical terms.
21Learning HintIf a suffix begins with a vowel, drop the vowel in the combining form.The medical definition indicates the last part of the term first, especially when suffixes are used.Inflammation of the stomach is gastritis not itisgast and one who studies the stomach is a gastrologist, not an ologistgastro.When using prefixes, put the part in the order you say the definition.Slow heart rate is bradycardia, not cardiabrady.
22Common Medical Abbreviations Extensively used in the medical professionUseful in simplifying long, complicated terms for diseases, diagnostic procedures, and therapies during chartingYou will learn more abbreviations with each chapter
24Click here to view a video on the topic of Medical Specialties. Back to Directory
25The Metric SystemThe metric system is the mathematical language of anatomy and physiology.Two major systems of measurements are used in the world today.The United States Customary System (USCS)Used in the United States and MyanmarThe Système International (SI)Used everywhere else, especially in science, healthcare, and pharmaceuticals companiesAlso known as the metric system; based on the power of 10
26The United States Customary System (USCS) Based on the British Imperial SystemDifferent designations for length, weight, and volumeVolume in ounces, pints, quarts, gallons, poundsDistances in inches, feet, yards, and milesWeight in pounds, ounces, and tonsCommonly called the English systemCumbersome to use because there is no common base, with no relationship between each unit
27Prehospital Documentation In EMS, proper documentation of patient findings and care provided is essential.Standard abbreviations are necessary so other health care providers will understand them.Many EMS systems have an approved list of standardized abbreviations that should be followed.
28Language of Disease Things can go wrong with the human body. Disease is a condition in which the body fails to function normally.The body works to make things function smoothly and maintain a balance known as homeostasis.Eating habits, smoking, inherited traits, trauma, cancer, environmental factors, and aging can alter this balance.
29Signs and Symptoms of Disease Signs are definitive, objective, obvious indicators of an illness.Vital signs (temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure)FeverCough
30Figure 1–4 A health care professional taking a radial pulse and common pulse points.
31Signs and Symptoms of Disease Symptoms are more subjective and difficult to measure consistently.Pain – tolerance to pain varies in different peopleA set of signs and symptoms that commonly occur with a specific disease process is called a syndrome.
32Click here to view a video on the topic of Vital Signs. Back to Directory
33DiagnosisDiagnosis translates from the Greek as “know through or completely.”Discovering as many signs and symptoms as possible can aid in making a diagnosis.History and results of diagnostic testing are also required.Prognosis is the prediction of the outcome of a disease.Etiology is the cause of the disease.
34Clinical Application: Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X There is a disturbing new syndrome, affecting nearly one quarter of the United States’ adult population, known as Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X.Individuals who exhibit this syndrome are at an increased risk for a form of diabetes, heart attack, and/or stroke.This syndrome is the result of poor diet and lack of exercise.
35Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X People with this syndrome exhibit three of five common conditions:High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)High blood pressure (hypertension)Abdominal obesityHigh triglyceridesLow blood levels of HDL (good cholesterol)
36Amazing Facts: Bizarre Signs and Symptoms There are some strange signs and symptoms that are indications of disease. There are many others that aren’t listed here.Generalized itching – Hodgkin’s diseaseSweating at night – TuberculosisA hunger for clay or starchy paste – Iron deficiencyFruity smelling breath – DiabetesMagenta colored tongue – Riboflavin deficiency
37Amazing Facts: Bizarre Signs and Symptoms There are some strange signs and symptoms that are indications of disease. There are many others that aren’t listed here.Absence of moons on fingernails – Kidney diseaseHairy tongue – Results from improper usage of antibioticsSpoon shaped fingernails – Iron deficiencyBrown linear streaks on fingernails – Melanoma
38HomeostasisHomeostasis is the physiological process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium.Survival depends on our ability to maintain homeostasis.Homeostatic regulation refers to the adjustments made in the human organism to maintain a stable internal environment.The thermostat in your home is an example of a homeostatic control.
39Negative Feedback Loop If the feedback opposes the stimulus, it is a negative feedback loopThe hypothalamus in the brain uses a negative feedback loop to control body temperature and maintain homeostasis.
40Positive FeedbackPositive feedback increases the magnitude of a change versus resisting change.This kind of a process is also known as a vicious cycle.This is not a way to regulate your body because it increases a change away from a set point.Often harmful if the cycle cannot be broken.An example is the recurrent contraction of the uterus during childbirth.
41FROM THE STREETSYou respond to the scene of a patient who cut himself while peeling an apple. Upon arrival you find that the patient’s cut finger has clotted. This is an example of what type of feedback process?
42FROM THE STREETSYou respond to the scene of a patient who cut himself while peeling an apple. Upon arrival you find that the patient’s cut finger has clotted. This is an example of what type of feedback process? Positive Feedback
43Figure 1–5 The homeostatic control of normal body temperature (37ºC or 98.6ºF).
44Figure 1–5 (continued) The homeostatic control of normal body temperature (37ºC or 98.6ºF).
45Click here to view a video on the topic of Medical Assisting. Back to Directory
46Click here to view a video on the topic of Health Information Management. Back to Directory
47Click here to view a video on the topic of Medical Transcription. Back to Directory
48Snapshots from the Journey Anatomy – study of the internal and external structures of the body; Physiology – study of function; Pathology – study of diseaseMedical terminology – language of medicine combining root words, prefixes, and suffixesMetric system – mathematical language of medicine based on the power of tenHomeostasis – the body’s attempt to maintain a balanced, or stable, environment; uses negative feedback
49Case StudyA 66-year-old Asian male involved in a vehicular accident is taken to the ICU with SOB and abdominal pain. He has acrocyanosis, tachycardia, and a past medical history of cardiopathy. He weighs 150 pounds and is 5 feet 6 inches tall. His chest X-ray shows an enlarged heart. His facial injuries will require future rhinoplastic surgery. An electrocardiogram and lower GI series is ordered.
50Case Study QuestionsWhere exactly in the hospital was the patient taken?Describe the patient’s color, heart rate, and breathing.What is the medical term for what the X-ray showed?What future facial surgery will be needed?
51FROM THE STREETSYou are called to the home of 59 year-old male. According to his wife, he is “not acting right”. Upon your arrival you find him confused and check his blood glucose. Blood glucose= 49 mg/dl (normal range mg/dl). His wife states that she tried to get him to drink some orange juice, but he had difficulty swallowing. The wife describes that he has been NPO after midnight for a colonoscopy scheduled in the morning.
52From the Streets Questions What is the term that best describes his current diagnosis?What is the term that best describes his “difficulty swallowing”?What does the abbreviation NPO mean?Describe what is meant by the term colonoscopy.
53From the Streets Questions What is the term that best describes his current diagnosis? HypoglycemiaWhat is the term that best describes his “difficulty swallowing”? DysphagiaWhat does the abbreviation NPO mean? Nothing by mouthDescribe what is meant by the term colonoscopy. A procedure/instrument that views the colon
54End of Chapter Review Questions Which of the following is an example of microscopic anatomy?Viewing an x-rayExamining the shape of an organ during an autopsyClassifying a type of bacterial cellWatching how the pupils react to light
55End of Chapter Review Questions Acromegaly means which of the following:A large stomachEnlarged extremitiesAn inflamed stomach liningA large acrobat
56End of Chapter Review Questions The process that prevents movement away from a normal set point is calledpositive feedbacknegative feedbackvicious cyclecontrol center
57End of Chapter Review Questions In the medical field, science, engineering and pharmaceutical industries volume is measured inkilogramslitersmetersgallons
58End of Chapter Review Questions The cause of a disease is referred to as the:PrognosisDiagnosisPathologyEtiology
59End of Chapter Review Questions Which of the following is a sign?NauseaFeverDizzinessFatigue
60End of Chapter Review Questions A man reports to the emergency department with nausea and vomiting. He has a fever, and his pulse and blood pressure are elevated. After some tests, it is determined that he has the stomach flu. Which of the following is his prognosis?Rest and drink plenty of fluidsA viral infectionYou’ll be fine in a few daysNausea, vomiting, and fever
61End of Chapter Review Questions Ted’s knee injury occurred at last night’s football game. Today his doctor wants to make a small incision and use a device to “look around the joint” to assess the damage. What is the term for this device?______________________ is the study of the structures of the body, and _____________ is the study of the function of these structures.
62End of Chapter Review Questions Bob has just been told he has hepatomegaly. This means his _________ is enlarged.Pulse and temperature represent two ____________ signs of the body.Jill is badly injured in a car accident. She is bleeding badly. Her blood pressure is dropping rapidly. Her heart beats faster to try to raise her blood pressure, yet it keeps dropping due to blood loss. This is an example of _________.
63End of Chapter Review Questions Explain the difference between diagnosis and prognosis.Knowing that difficulty swallowing is called dysphagia, what do you think the function of a phagocyte is?Contrast negative and positive feedback loops.Describe one example of homeostasis in your body.
64End of Chapter Review Questions After saving for 10 years for a ski trip to the Alps, Jose experienced a spectacular wipeout on the first run down the mountain. A broken leg is the diagnosis. List the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.