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Emergency Medical Response Circulation and Cardiac Emergencies.

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Presentation on theme: "Emergency Medical Response Circulation and Cardiac Emergencies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergency Medical Response Circulation and Cardiac Emergencies

2 Emergency Medical Response You Are the Emergency Medical Responder You are called to the home of a 50-year-old man whose wife called 9-1-1 because he was complaining of severe pressure in his chest and pain that was radiating to his shoulder. The patient is now perspiring and breathing rapidly and appears very anxious. He states, “I feel like I can’t catch my breath. I still feel the pressure, but it has gotten a little bit better.” Lesson 19: The Circulatory System and Cardiac Emergencies

3 Emergency Medical Response Anatomy and Physiology  Heart structures  Blood flow through the heart  Electrical impulse conduction  Perfusion

4 Emergency Medical Response Pathophysiology of the Circulatory System  Cardiovascular disease as the #1 killer in the United States – 80 million Americans  The two most common conditions caused by cardiovascular disease are—  Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)  Stroke (brain attack)

5 Emergency Medical Response Coronary Heart Disease  CHD occurs when plaque buildup occurs in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle  Possible results:  Acute myocardial ischemia/Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)  Myocardial infarction (MI) – Heart attack  Coronary blood vessels become blocked

6 Emergency Medical Response Other Cardiac Problems  Angina pectoris – chest discomfort  Arrhythmias (i.e., ventricular fibrillation [V-fib] and ventricular tachycardia [V-tach])  Atrial fibrillation – usually not life-threatening  Congestive heart failure  Hypertension – high blood pressure  Diabetes – affects nerves, silent heart attack

7 Emergency Medical Response Heart Attack: Signs and Symptoms  Persistent chest discomfort, pressure or pain  Chest discomfort or pain that is severe, lasting more than a few minutes, goes away and comes back or persists with rest  Pain that comes and goes (such as angina pectoris)  Difficulty breathing  Other signs: pallor, sweating, dizziness, nausea or unexplained fatigue  Women are more likely to experience shortness of breath; nausea or vomiting; stomach, back or jaw pain; or unexplained fatigue or malaise

8 Emergency Medical Response Assessment of Cardiac Emergencies  Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating, or beats to ineffectively to circulate blood  Primary cause cardiovascular disease  Cardiac arrest  No breathing  No pulse  Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)  Suddenly and without any warning signs

9 Emergency Medical Response Care for Cardiac Emergencies  Act immediately and summon more advanced medical personnel  Have person stop activity and rest  Loosen tight or uncomfortable clothing  Comfort the patient  Give aspirin if medically appropriate and permitted by local protocols  Assist with prescribed medication  Prepare for CPR and for using an AED

10 Emergency Medical Response Activity Upon arriving at the home of a patient who is sitting on the ground near her vegetable garden, you are approached by the patient's husband, who says that he called 9-1-1 because she started complaining of shortness of breath. “We were working out here in the garden for a couple of hours, trying to get it ready for planting when all of a sudden she got really nauseous and fatigued. Then she said she felt this sudden, sharp pain in her chest and had trouble catching her breath.”

11 Emergency Medical Response Cardiac Chain of Survival 1.Early recognition and early access to the EMS system 2.Early CPR 3.Early defibrillation 4.Early advanced medical care

12 Emergency Medical Response You Are the Emergency Medical Responder You suspect that the 50-year-old man with severe chest pressure is having a heart attack and you call for more advanced medical personnel.

13 Emergency Medical Response Enrichment Preventing Coronary Heart Disease  CHD is the leading cause of death in the United States  CHD develops gradually  Read enrichment page 322

14 Emergency Medical Response Preventing Coronary Heart Disease  Risk factors that cannot be changed:  Age  Gender  Ethnicity  Family history  Risk factors that can be changed:  Smoking  Uncontrolled blood cholesterol  Uncontrolled high blood pressure  Uncontrolled diabetes  Lack of regular exercise

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